## No 30 (2019)

**Year:**2019**Articles:**14**URL:**https://ered.pstu.ru/index.php/elinf/issue/view/222**DOI:**https://doi.org/10.15593/.v0i30

Articles

ELECTRICAL PROPULSION PLANT OF SHIPS, HEAVY-DUTY

#### Abstract

The analysis of the existing structures of the construction of systems for the electromotive movement of vessels of high power is performed, their advantages and disadvantages are presented. A comparative analysis of various types of propeller motors. Based on the analysis, it was proposed to use a reactive electric motor with anisotropic magnetic conductivity of the rotor, characterized by high energy and better performance characteristics compared to other known types of electric machines, as a propeller motor. A comparative analysis of various types of electrical transducers used in an adjustable electric drive was carried out, advantages and disadvantages were considered. A transformerless structure of an electromotive installation of a large-capacity vessel with a cascade frequency converter is proposed. Various variants of the design of transformerless rowing electric drives with a cascade frequency converter are considered. The advantages of using ship propulsion systems with a cascade frequency converter and a jet motor with anisotropic magnetic conductivity of the rotor are given. The proposed structure is universal, has high reliability and flexibility of construction, and also allows the implementation of an electromotive installation of almost unlimited power. On the basis of the proposed structure of the ship’s electromotive complex, an alternative variant for constructing an electromotive complex of an icebreaker of project 22220 was designed. magnetic wire imostyu rotor. The presented quantitative estimates show that the use of a transformerless variant of the structure of an electromotive installation with a cascade frequency converter and a reactive electric machine with anisotropic magnetic conductivity of the rotor will significantly reduce the mass and volume occupied by the electromotive complex. In addition, the proposed version of the electromotive complex of the vessel will significantly improve performance in comparison with the known structures of building a propulsion complex.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(30):7-27

TO THE QUESTION ABOUT DESIGN AND REALIZATION OF ELEMENTS END DEVICES FOR DISTRIBUTED INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

#### Abstract

The research object of this paper is distributed industrial control systems - one class of control systems that used for supporting for broad spectrum of technical systems. The purpose of this paper is design and analysis of approaches for creating and realization of distributed industrial control systems elements. According to State system industrial devises and automation tools requirements such systems can be considered as a complex of automation and control subsystem and collection, transmission and distribution subsystem. For each subsystem a features of functioning and realization methods are considered, examples are shown. The specification of elements functioning for each form subsystems is performed. The object and subject of research for this paper are defined. The component and communication models of subsystems are created and analyzed and their similarities and differences are indicated. It allowed suggesting the common approaches to providing parameters and characteristics of its basic elements. The typical structure of the distributed information and control system is presented, the objects of management and control are highlighted, the processes of collecting, transmitting and distributing information between devices of different levels of administration are analyzed. The analysis of design methods of control systems elements is done; the requirements for their practical realization are formulated. The approach to providing of preset operation and technical indicators of control systems elements. It based on using technical diagnostics methods, ways to improve the reliability of data transmission and decision-making algorithms for the results of processing diagnostic information. A formal formulation of the problem of ensuring the quantitative and qualitative indicators (reliability, testability, transmission reliability) of the control systems elements has been completed. The results of implementation of offered approaches are shown; the directions of next research are defined.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(30):28-49

FINDING THE OPTIMAL ASSORTMENT OF STORES BASED ON BIMATRIX GAMES

#### Abstract

In this paper, the concept of the bimatrix game is given, the definition of the equilibrium situation is given, as well as the condition for finding mixed strategies that make up the equilibrium situation. The Lemke algorithm for solving bimatrix games with given payment matrices is given. A special feature of this algorithm is the replacement of a variable derived from the basis by its complement. The actual task of obtaining the maximum profit by two competing shops when selling confectionery products ordered from one supplier is considered. Comparative characteristics of stores are shown by several criteria. The aim of the work is to find the optimal number of assortment of confectionery products of two stores to obtain the maximum average profit. Based on the opinion of experts on the priorities of stores and their assortment, as well as the initial data on the purchase prices of goods and the amount of mark-up on them, payment matrixes of store profits are drawn up. The opinion of the experts served as the main condition for the formation of a bimatrix game with given matrices, in the solution of which the optimal mixed strategies for selling goods were found on the basis of the Lemke algorithm. The size of the original matrices was changed by deleting rows and columns corresponding to the dominant strategies of the players. The resulting reduction in the payoff matrix of the players is reduced to the equivalent form necessary to compile the initial simplex table of the Lemke algorithm. Further, according to the rules of the simplex method, tables are recalculated to find the optimal solution by the Lemke algorithm. The results of the work are of real practical importance, they can be used to find the optimal solution for two competing parties in conflict situations.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(30):50-62

THE CONNECTION SCREEN SINGLE-PHASE POWER CABLES WITH XLPE INSULATION

#### Abstract

One of the main reasons for the increase in the damage of single-phase cable lines made by an electric cable of a new generation, using cross-linked polyethylene as an insulation, is the wrong choice of the screen section and its grounding schemes in terms of accounting for induced currents and the power losses caused by them. In the article considered the possibility of solving actual problems of study of the electrical screen mode single-phase power cables with XLPE insulation with over-Zeleniy cable shield at both ends. The scheme of substitution is offered and theoretical research of features of current flow in the cable screen and the earth is executed, and also the analysis of losses of active power in the screen taking into account resistance of grounding conductors. The calculated ratios for determining the current in the "earth channel" and the screen of the power cable of the new generation with insulation made of cross-linked polyethylene are obtained. The interrelation between the currents of cable core, cable screen and "earth channel"is established. The results of a computational experiment to determine the values of the "earth-Lee" current for cables with cross-linked polyethylene insulation with different screen cross-sections are presented. The estimation of active power losses in the ground, core and cable screen at grounding on both sides and overvoltage on the cable screen at one-way grounding is performed. It is shown that for the implementation of measures to optimize energy losses in power supply systems of industrial enterprises it is advisable to build a single-phase cable line with two cables insulation made of cross-linked polyethylene. At the same time, the implementation of a single-phase two-wire power line with wires of different cross sections due to an increase in electricity losses is impractical.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(30):63-78

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ELECTRIC MOTORS OF PILGER MILL DRIVE FOR TECHNOLOGY OF MANUFACTURING SEAMLESS PIPES. CHOICE OPTIMAL DESIGN

#### Abstract

One of the most promising methods for the manufacture of seamless pipes are the so-called pilgrim mills. This is because the transition to different pipe diameters can be accomplished in the shortest possible time. At the moment, the concept of this mode of production is not morally obsolete, but the existing mills, built several decades ago, are physically worn out and require replacement. This article focuses on this pressing issue. The customer is the Chelyabinsk Pipe Rolling Plant, where the pilgrim mill has been operating since 1928. At the request of the company's management, it is necessary to replace the existing collector engine with a modern, highly reliable drive, while increasing energy performance. It is required to consider options for dividing an existing drive operating simultaneously into two workshops into two separate drives serving each workshop. The article analyzes various variants of electric drives based on asynchronous and synchronous motors. For all the options, the program of accurate calculation of electric machines based on the ANSYS Electronics Desktop finite element method was used. Comparative analysis of the selected variants is performed. The minimum consumption of active materials and energy indicators were chosen as indicators of the best option. To replace the existing morally and physically obsolete collector DC motor, a drive based on a valve motor with a claw-shaped poles with permanent magnets has been proposed, which has higher reliability due to a non-contact current lead, minimum copper consumption, better energy performance, due to exclusion of excitation losses.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(30):79-101

THE POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT PHASE SWITCHED-RELUCTANCE MOTOR WITH ONE POWER SWITCH

#### Abstract

The article presents the basic requirements for the converters of the switched-reluctance motors (SRM): the possibility of implementing positive, negative and zero circuits, saving energy accumulated in the winding phase of the switched-reluctance drive (SRD) for further use, ensuring the operation of the phases with overlap, fault tolerance. The modes of operation and advantages of the classical asymmetric half-bridge сonverter circuit SRM containing a source, two transistor switches, two reverse diodes and a capacitor are presented. A new circuit solution for the сonverter is proposed. A single-key circuit is considered, which contains two independent galvanically isolated DC voltage sources, two capacitors, a diode, a semiconductor key and a phase stator winding of a SRM divided into two half-windings. The mathematical model is presented and simulation in the environment of MatLab/Simulink, classical and single-key power supply circuit of the switched-reluctance machine (SRM) phase is carried out. Comparative graphs of instantaneous values of currents in the winding and electromagnetic moment, which differ in amplitude by two times the values of currents and voltages on a semiconductor key and diode, are obtained for two circuits. The new scheme, while maintaining the advantages of the classical scheme, allows to reduce the number of power semiconductor elements and, consequently, the cost of the converter, and also allows you to implement a separate power supply of coils SRМ. Power supply scheme of SRD with one power key element (transistor) is proposed for switching each phase. While the most commonly used at present is the half-bridge power circuit SRM, which has two key elements. Reducing the number of relatively expensive power elements will reduce the cost of the converter and simplify its power part. The main application area of the new circuit solution is determined. Since the single-key circuit requires two sources, it is most convenient for electric drives powered from autonomous electric power sources, for example, electric vehicles, robots, aircraft and underwater vehicles of drive mechanisms, as well as electric drives operating in places remote from the centralized power supply.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(30):102-118

TECHNICAL DESIGN ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE CATALYTIC REFORMING UNIT

#### Abstract

Advanced process control systems are being actively implemented in the refining, petrochemical and chemical industries. These systems provide optimal process control and allow to formalize and use the expert data of operators, reducing the influence of the human factor. These systems provide optimal process control and allow to formalize and use the expert data of operators reducing the influence of the human factor. Integration of such control systems is important for technological processes supplying finished products, because there is a correlation between the quality of products and economic performance of the entire enterprise. This article contains the results of designing an advanced control system for a catalytic reforming unit occupying a final position in the production of aromatic hydrocarbons at the enterprise LLC "Lukoil-Permnefteorgsintez". The advanced process control system takes on the peculiarities of the technological process and the tasks of management and optimization and contains three controllers for each of the production units. For this production, mathematical models of 39 virtual analyzers in the form of multiparameter regression equations were constructed. For each model, its structural and parametric identification was made. The constructed models were checked based on the values given by the virtual analyzer and corresponding real values. A virtual analyzer for the content of the main substance in toluene is considered as an example.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(30):119-132

THE IMPROVEMENT OF CONTROL PERFORMANCE OVER STEAM HEAT SUPPLY THAT CONCURRENTLY PROVIDES TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS AND THE HEATING OF BUILDINGS

#### Abstract

The change-over to the 4th generation heat supply networks, according to which residual heat or the heat that is given out as a result of other activities is used, places high requirements to control systems in heat supply networks and to the quality of decisions. The paper considers the issues of selecting temperature rates for heat supply operation by the joint use of boiler plant steam for technological process and the heating of a group of buildings. The paper is aimed at building a model that allows to make decisions about the capacity of heat production and energy feed scheme for heat supply in a group of buildings by steam heating and in the conditions of parallel use of this energy in production process. In order for the set goal to be achieved, a performance curve has been built for heat supply system and the algorithm for managerial decision making has been worked out, correspondingly, which allow to minimize heat-transfer agent temperature deviations from target temperature in the conditions of changed ambience temperature. The performance curve was obtained on the base of statistical data. The use of the suggested approach helped not only minimize the deviations of heat-transfer agent temperature value from the target one, but also after being verified on the base of retrospective data demonstrated the average saving of energy of no less than 30 Gcal/heating period. Besides, the use of ambience temperature forecast data helped obtain a smooth change in equipment performance mode that will provide additional saving and will reduce the wearing of equipment. The proposed approach does not place restrictions on the type of equipment used and the structure of heat supply system.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(30):133-150

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL IN THE TASK OF MODELING OF POPULATION DIFFERENTIATION BY THE AMOUNT OF SAVINGS

#### Abstract

The active development of the optimal control theory of distributed systems in the second half of the last century was caused by a high demand for technical problems, however, this theory quickly showed invariance to other fields of application. Today, applied research aimed at improving the efficiency of complex socio-economic processes management, based on the using and development of methods of optimal control theory for systems with distributed parameters, is becoming increasingly relevant. The object of the study is a distributed system, described by an initial-boundary value problem for a partial differential equation of a parabolic type and modeling the population distribution of a region in terms of cash savings. For the system under study, an optimal control problem of the “distributed control - final observation” type has been posed. This means that it is necessary to approximate the state of the system at a fixed time to a certain pre-defined form by controlling the terms in the equation of state (ie, the influx of new members into the system or the outflow from it). The conclusion of the optimization system in a strong form and the law of optimal control, obtained in terms of the model, have been given. The methods of the theory of partial differential equations, the theory of optimal control of distributed systems, mathematical and computer modeling are applied. An example of the numerical study of the model according to the Perm region has been given. The Comsol Multiphysics package has been used for numerical implementations. The methodology proposed by the authors for carrying out such calculations, taking into account the interdependence of migration processes in the region and the financial condition of the population in it, can be applied in the development of effective measures to manage migration processes, which is an important task of both state and regional policy.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(30):151-163

INVESTIGATION THE EFFECT OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF TIME SLOTS ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A NETWORK WITH RANDOM MULTIPLE ACCESS

#### Abstract

The article studies the characteristics of an information control network with a random multiple access algorithm with carrier control and collision avoidance by predicting the network load of the predictive p-persistent CSMA channel. A significant advantage of the algorithm in comparison with other algorithms of the class of random multiple access is the dynamic adaptability of the transmission persistence level to the channel load. This is achieved using an advanced mechanism for predicting the expected network load for each data transfer cycle. The result is a decrease in channel access time at low load and a reduced likelihood of data collisions at high load. The algorithm is widely used in fieldbus networks, including the sensor and industrial networks of LonWorks and BacNet. A literary review shows the interest of the world community in the application of the algorithm, for which research and modernization of its mechanisms are actively conducted. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of the law of the distribution of the number of slots of competition for access to a channel on the probabilistic and temporal characteristics of data transmission in a network with the slot access algorithm studied. The paper presents a brief description of the principles of operation of the studied access algorithm and describes the structure of the developed and used model in the simulation environment AnyLogic. The necessary simulation experiments of the functioning of the network with the services of reliable and unreliable message delivery were carried out using three different laws for choosing the slots of rivalry (uniform, normal, exponential). The analysis of the obtained characteristics of the network operation is made and conclusions are made about the impact of the laws of choice of access slots on the duration of transmission and the probability of data loss during various network channel loads and delivery services. Recommendations are formulated on the expediency of applying various laws for choosing access slots.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(30):164-181

AUTOMATIC SPEECH SEGMENTATION THAT USES CLUSTERING METHODS AND OTSU’S METHOD

#### Abstract

Automatic speech recognition is the use of computer hardware and software-based techniques to identify and process human voice. Speech segmentation is a process of breaking down a speech signal into smaller units and it is a very important part of many automatic speech processing systems. Speech segmentation is used not only in speech recognition systems, but also in speech corpus collections, speaker verification systems and other. Manual segmentation is a very ineffective process so development of automatic speech segmentation method is an important task. Base speech segmentation units are words, phonemes or syllables. Word is the most natural unit of segmentation. In the paper three new sentence-to-words speech segmentation approaches are proposed. These approaches are based on using various clustering methods and the Otsu’s method for speech signal spectrogram analysis. Clustering methods are the k-means method and the fuzzy c-means method. In the paper also proposed method for words boundaries detection. Developed methods were implemented in MatLab for testing. The average segmentation accuracy rate of the approach that uses k-means clustering method is 90,6 %, 91 % for the approach that uses fuzzy c-means clustering method and 91,8 % for the approach that uses Otsu’s method. Achieved results are compared with other speech segmentation methods. Most promising is a further development of the approach that uses Otsu’s method.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(30):182-195

OPTIMIZATION OF THE MILLLOAD DEGREE IN CEMENTPRODUCTION

#### Abstract

A method of the mill load degreeoptimization in cement production to increase its efficiency is considered.This problem has many obstacles to solvebecause the quality of grinding and the consumption of resources depend on many factors that present great difficulties in their measurement and forecasting. Reliable measurement of the influencing factors necessary to determine the optimal combination of the volume of the ball load of grinding and the amount of solids necessary to reduce the particle size of the charge with a minimum specific energy consumption. This paper describes an application for the operational management of a closed-loop cement mill that uses prediction technology. A controllerbased on this method, should work in real time and reflect the current state of the grinding process. Decision making for this operational management belongs to the class of multi-criteria tasks. The paper proposes a decision-making method based on the set of permissible technical conditions imposed on the grinding process. Such a formulation of the problem is generally contradictory. The paper proposes an approach to solving this problem based on determining the maximum number of joint weighted technical conditions imposed on the process. This approach allows to organize an interactive procedure for selecting a feasible solution for the operational management of the grinding process. The control optimization for the ball mills allows to increase mill productivity up 3-5 % and reduce specific power consumption to 2-4 %.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(30):196-210

ANALISIS OF HEAT AND MASS PROCESSES IN AN OIL WELL WITH USING THE BOTTOM HEATERS

#### Abstract

The paper deals with the problem of high-viscosity oil in oil wells and how to solve it by heating the well bottom zone using a bottom heater. A two-dimensional mathematical model of the process of heat and mass transfer in an oil well using a bottom heater, which is used for wells with high-viscosity oil were viewed. A longitudinal section of a well with a depth of 105 meters, surrounded by soil, was taken. To study the distributions of viscosity, velocity and temperature, three variants of a model with a bottom heater, which is located at a depth of 80 meters and 60 meters and having various sizes of 20 meters and 40 meters, were investigated. The numerical implementation of the developed mathematical model was carried out by the finite element method in the ANSYS environment. The ICEM CFD preprocessor was used to build the geometry and the finite element grid partitioning. Used quadratic elements. The task was solved by the numerical method of finite elements in the environment of engineering calculations Fluent. The obtained fields of velocity, temperature and viscosity in the entire volume of the well. The dependences of oil temperature on heater power, its size and depth, the dependence of the temperature at the inlet to the electric centrifugal pump on the flow rate of the liquid, and the distribution of oil viscosity over the bottom-hole heater are built. As a result of these studies, a more rational version of the method of producing high-viscosity oil was chosen when using a bottom heater in an oil well. Using this option will help reduce the load from electric centrifugal pumps and increase their efficiency.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(30):211-226

SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE FAULTS

#### Abstract

The methods of diagnostics of electric machines are gaining immense popularity and significance. Not all enterprises can continuously upgrade their equipment due to lack of funds. They are forced to reduce the budget for re-equipment and use the machines that long ago need repair. Any electric machine, even with proper care, requires repair. If you do not perform repairs on time, then there may be emergencies that are life-threatening for maintenance personnel. Solving this problem, they resort to a constant assessment of the technical condition of the machine. The article deals with the implementation of one of the methods of such the estimation, carried out by spectral analysis of the stator current of a synchronous machine. The instantaneous values of the stator currents are decomposed into a harmonic series by means of the coefficients of the Fourier series. Analysis of the spectrum allows us to state that any additional harmonic causes a clear fault in the machine. This approach is as much more objective than other methods. The advantage of this technique is that it was already tested on an asynchronous machine and produced good results. The synchronous turbine generator of the TTK-50-2U3P series was selected for the study.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(30):227-240