## No 26 (2018)

**Year:**2018**Articles:**13**URL:**https://ered.pstu.ru/index.php/elinf/issue/view/227**DOI:**https://doi.org/10.15593/.v0i26

Articles

APPLICATION THE METHOD OF CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS TO OPTIMIZE COMBINATIONS OF ATTRIBUTES FROM DATASETS

#### Abstract

The development of intrusion detection systems (IDS) is depended on the development both adaptive and non-adaptive algorithms today. On the one hand, the usage of non-adaptive algorithms provides the required speed of operation with the low rates false positive and false negative errors for the IDS. On the other hand, the ability of IDS to detect unknown threats is provided by the availability of the adaptive components. The intensive development of adaptive algorithms is provided by creating new methods associated with artificial immune systems, artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, etc. The quality of new developed methods and algorithms are tested through to specialized datasets. The datasets are sets of queries which represented in a special form that are transmitted between systems in different levels of the OSI. There are number of such datasets such as: KDD99, NSL-KDD DataSet, ADFA Intrusion Detection Datasets, MACCDC, ISTS, ITOC, DEFCON CTF, etc. Each dataset contains training and test (work) subsets. The training set is need for the learning the adaptive algorithm. The work subset is need for the testing the quality of developed methods and algorithms. The datasets which described by the queries have full structure in terms of their entities. That’s why the specialists in security science are faced with the problem of optimization the attribute set in datasets. This optimization allows to increase the efficiency of algorithm learning and to decrease the number of its linear combination. The article considers the possibility of using the correspondence analysis method with the embedded mechanism of singular decomposition of the matrix representation of datasets to reduce the number of linear combinations its attributes.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(26):7-28

TECHNOLOGICAL OBJECT PARAMETRIC IDENTIFICATION WITHIN EXECUTION MODE WITH NEURAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGY

#### Abstract

We solve the parametric identification problem for technological objects. We suppose that it is impossible to perform an active experiment in order to find transfer functions of objects channels in operation modes. Our method of the parametric identification is based on dynamic neural network modeling. Neural network is trained on the data of control object operating. The resulting model simulate the behavior of the system and lets us find the system’s output, including outputs for periodic test influences. By the resulting complex frequency response we find the parameters of the channel’s transfer function. We show an example of parametric identification for the steam production heat exchanger of the bottoms cooling unit of the delayed coking plant of the refinery. We identify the model, which predicts bottoms temperature at the heat exchanger output. The approaches to data collection and data handling are presented. The results of teaching and testing neural network technological object model are shown. The neural network technological object model is used to perform numerical experiment to identify one by the frequency responses. According to this approach imitation model of technological object is build. The model is tested out by experimental data. Our technological objects identification approach is applicable for identification of objects with continuous production with the data of observations of technological variables in operation modes. The resulting parameters of transfer functions of these channels with controlled disturbances can be used to tune the algorithms of compensating for them in automated control systems.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(26):29-41

PIECEWISE-EXPONENTIAL APPROXIMATION OF SELF-OSCILLATIONS IN SYSTEMS OF TWO-POSITION REGULATION OF UNDEFINED DYNAMICAL OBJECTS

#### Abstract

The method of parametric identification of indeterminate dynamic objects is described, based on the piecewise-exponential approximation of self-oscillations in systems of two-position control. The structure of the model of indeterminate dynamic objects functioning in systems of on-off regulation is represented by a differential equation with variable coefficients, which consider dynamic parameters and perturbation of objects. The general scheme of parametric identification provides for splitting the experimental self-oscillating curves into separate sections, the description of self-oscillations in the regions using the method of piecewise-exponential approximation, the subsequent determination based on the obtained descriptions of the unknown coefficients of the model of uncertain dynamic objects. As an example of an indefinite dynamic object, the heating zone of an industrial apparatus for vacuum separation of sponge titanium is considered. The selection of informative sections from the experimental curves of self-oscillating regimes is based on the assumption that during the period of self-oscillations the dynamic parameters and perturbation of an undetermined object remain constant. In this case, the period of self-oscillations is proposed to be used as an identification interval, on which the real undetermined object is considered quasi-stationary, in the process of functioning at different identification intervals, as a family of quasi-stationary control objects. This approach allows us to describe the dynamics of an undetermined object on the intervals of identification by differential equations with constant coefficients. A system of finite equations is obtained that approximates self-oscillations on the intervals of identification by exponential functions. As a result of the solution of the system unknown coefficients of the differential equation are determined, and a model is obtained that is adequate to the real undefined object. The model is used to develop adaptive and robust control systems for the production processes of sponge titanium.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(26):42-55

The economic content of cost factors and the essence of investment activity of energy enterprises

#### Abstract

The main and one of the key factors of development of any enterprise is investment activity. With the help of an effective capital investment, opportunities for potential growth and return on investment are realized. As an example, an update of the existing logistics base can be considered, which contributes to the increase in the efficiency of production and, consequently, the reduction of costs. In addition to the influence directly on the enterprise, high investment activity, is a prerequisite for the development of the economy of the country, as well as regions. Due to the use of worn-out equipment and out-dated technologies, companies incur higher unit costs of variable costs compared to European manufacturers. Hence, the urgency of the problem of high wear and tear of OPF and the insufficient level of investment in the renovation and creation of assets of Russian power companies determines the specifics of the master's thesis, which is to study the investment activity of energy companies as one of the most capital-intensive sectors of the economy. In this connection, it is necessary to determine the factors of the value of companies affecting their investment activity. In connection with the existing problems of the power industry, the study will focus on investments in the creation, modernization and updating of tangible assets. The article deals with the method of determining the factors of value. This is a description of the current state of the Russian energy industry and its main objects. The next stage identifies the main areas of investment activity. This article deals with investments in fixed assets, the purpose of which is to update and increase the existing material and technical base. In the final part of the study, the dynamics of the stock index of the MICEX-energy industry was analyzed, a sample of companies was made, which in the future were used to construct the model.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(26):56-76

DINAMIC PREDICTION MODEL IN CONTROL SYSTEMS OF TECHNIC PROCESSES WITH INERTIA

#### Abstract

The paper investigates the performance of control systems taking into consideration the characteristics of these systems. In order for the efficient performance to be achieved, statistical data are used to build empirical regression models which are further expanded to control systems; as a result, control systems exhibit higher performance parameters than those with regulatory control. In the study, we use statistical data and machine learning methods which were applied for building regression models. Control models are built on the retrospective data being used for both simulating changes in room temperature depending on the temperature outside and the amount of heat obtained from heat supply, and for simulating changes in the temperature of heat carrier depending on the changes in room temperature and the temperature outside. Method lasso produced most accurate values. The models which were obtained with help of this method were used for building a control system and estimating system reaction. These models refer to the class of dynamic predictive models. The paper suggests how these models can be applied to control heat supply in high rise office buildings by taking into account the inertness of heat supply. The calculations evidenced higher efficiency of suggested solutions compared to the application of PID control systems on retrospective data and showed that the solution depends on the selection of data. The suggested approach allows to build control models which can operate in automatic mode and can be used as decision support systems by giving reasons for the integration of control systems and the assessment of potential savings.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(26):77-91

FEATURES OF USE OF ANALOG FRONT-END IN MOBILE ECG-MONITORING SYSTEMS

#### Abstract

The article is devoted to issue of use of analog front-end interfaces (AFE) to construct intellectual ECG-sensors. Problem of cardiovascular disease is one of most important medical and social problems. One of approaches to it’s decision is ECG-monitoring for people among risk group by means of special portative devices. Big companies that produce electronic components are supplying to world market specialized solutions for manufacturing of such devices as analog front-end. Authors analyzed features and possibilities of circuits of Analog Devices and Texas Instruments, especially, ADS1298ECG for constructing ECG-sensors on its base. Power consumption and noise level parameters of ECG - interface of Texas Instruments circuit are tested. Features of up-to-date intellectual ECG-sensor and corresponding requirements are examined. These requirements ensure the good level of quality of registration of signal in different conditions of work. Authors offer an algorithm of work of intellectual ECG-sensor, including steps of self-testing and monitoring of signal during the process of registration. The article considers a working model of intellectual wireless ECG-sensor based on selected analog front-end interface for operating under control of microcontroller in the network of data capturing of medical institution. In a future it is planned to use such devices as a source of initial information for diagnostics of different heart diseases and for analyzing of its electrical activity on a base of electrocardiographic data as well as for construction of wireless intellectual network of medical institution or for autonomous work. Taking into account viewed features of analog front-end and application of proposed algorithm of ECG devices allow to develop and engrain into practical usage modern mobile systems of ECG monitoring.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(26):92-105

ESTIMATION OF ECONOMY OF FUEL AND ENERGY RESOURCES IN COMPARABLE CONDITIONS IN THE REALIZATION OF ENERGY-SERVICE CONTRACT

#### Abstract

The article substantiates the need to take into account comparable conditions in determining the energy savings that arose in the implementation of measures to improve energy efficiency. Peculiarities of the implementation process of the energy service contract and accounting for comparable conditions are described, with reference to projects implemented within the framework of this type of contracts. An algorithm for determining the basic level of consumption and verification of measurements within the framework of the implementation of energy service contracts is described. The selection as a method of accounting for comparable conditions of independent consumption adjustments arising under the influence of various factors is substantiated. An example of the implementation of the energy service contract, including the modernization of the thermal network of the thermal power plant of the Siberian Federal District, is considered. For this contract, the process of determining the savings as a difference between the actual loss of thermal energy through isolation and the standard losses, the achievement of which was planned within the framework of the project, is described. The main realized stages of the algorithm are briefly described. With the purpose of approbation of the put forward assumptions, the process of determining the relationship between the losses of thermal energy and the air temperature was carried out. As a model for determining the correction, the pairwise linear regression equation was used. Based on the received value of the coefficient, the adjusted losses for each year of the project implementation are calculated and the savings in natural and monetary terms obtained under comparable conditions are determined. The effect of a change in the economy on the economic efficiency of the project is shown. The conclusion is made on the reasons for refusal to correct heat losses in the original version of the project. Recommendations are given on accounting for various comparable conditions, depending on the target value of various project indicators. The publication was prepared within the framework of the RFBR-supported scientific project No. 16-12-54003.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(26):106-125

METHODS OF SELECTING ELECTRONIC DIGITAL SIGNATURE STANDARD ALGORITHM PARAMETERS

#### Abstract

A standard algorithm, based on operations on an elliptic curve in a finite field, for electronic digital signature is described. Describes the sequence of actions performed in the formation of an electronic digital signature and the sequence of actions performed during its verification. The main parameters of the electronic digital signature algorithm, which are large prime numbers, are considered. The standard defines only mathematical formulas for operations on an elliptic curve and offers lower bounds for some parameters without establishing any specific algorithms for performing these operations. The task is to select the parameter of the algorithm for generating and verifying an electronic digital signature as a task of selecting a pseudorandom prime number of large dimension from a wide range with the subsequent verification that the chosen number is prime. It is pointed out that the upper limits of the parameters are determined mainly by three factors, which include the required level of security, the acceptable time of formation and verification of the electronic digital signature and the hardware platform used. Methods of forming prime numbers are considered. The advantages and disadvantages of various algorithms for checking formed numbers for simplicity are analyzed, including a test based on the small Fermat theorem, the Solovey-Strassen test, and the Miller-Rabin test. The analysis concludes that the use of the Miller-Rabin test is more preferable for the search for large prime numbers, which in comparison with the Solovey-Strassen test has less computational complexity and greater accuracy, although it has the disadvantage that it misses Carmichael numbers that are not prime. For practical applications, a sequence of steps is proposed for forming one of the parameters of an electronic digital signature algorithm. With the help of a similar procedure, it is suggested to search for other parameters of the standard algorithm for generating an electronic digital signature.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(26):126-141

COMPUTER MODELING AND CONTROL OF BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE TANK

#### Abstract

The increasing of man-induced ecological stress implies the reducing of potable water stock which, in turn, causes the necessity of wastewater treatment processes efficiency increasing. Since the natural experiments performance is impossible then significance of mathematical modeling as an instrument of wastewater treatment processes researching is difficult to overestimate. The observations show that a day can be divided in periods of approximately constant of the wastewater inflow rate. Also, the system of balancing tanks can maintain the constant value of sewage water flow. In view of these factors, the further development of compartment mathematical model for wastewater biological treatment process is proposed in this paper. The model is the system of ordinary differential equations with variable structure. The hour inflow rate of wastewater is supposed to be constant. The presented model describes the concentration dynamics of two types of substrates, oxygen and overall activated sludge microorganisms concentration. The introduced threshold functions permit to describe the oxidation process switching from organic substance to ammonium and the microorganisms oxygen competition. Also these functions permit to avoid inadmissible values of model concentrations which may emerge as a result of computational errors. The Monod function is used to take into account the oxygen and substrate saturation of microorganisms. The software package in Python is developed. The parameter identification is presented. The model output concentrations corresponding different control parameter values are set in the article. The results of computer modeling show the adequacy of the developed model to the wastewater treatment process realizing at Petrozavodsk (Karelia) plant. The proposed model permits to solve the problem of forecasting and control of biological wastewater treatment process and to develop algorithms for its stabilizing and optimizing.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(26):142-157

IDENTIFICATION OF ADU\VDU'S OIL HEATING BLOCK AS A CONTROL OBJECT WITH USING THE DYNAMIC NEURAL NETWORK

#### Abstract

The article presents the results of channel identification of ADU\VDU's crude oil heating block of refinery, which is a system of heat exchangers, with using the dynamic neural network. Trained neural network model can simulate the dynamics of a technological object and identify it by the transfer functions. One of the blocks of ADU\VDU is the system of heat exchangers designed to heat the crude oil by recuperating the heat of the unit's products. In conditions of changing the flow rate of crude oil and heating agent, supplied to the system of heat exchangers with specific technological topology of their connection, in order to increase the heat recovery rate of heating agents, there are problems of optimizing the topology of the technological scheme of the heat exchangers block and the distribution of crude oil coming in three streams. In the case of a given process flow diagram structure and a stable supply of the total oil flow and heating agents, the problem is solved by static optimization methods. Wherein the target function is the flow enthalpy of heated oil at the output of heat exchangers block. Then the control task will be in stabilization by systems of automatic regulation of oil flow rates at the calculated optimal values. However, for example, with variable flow rates of unregulated flows of heating agents or, with a change in the total crude oil flow rate, the optimization problem must be solved as a dynamic system with optimal control algorithms that assume the existence of mathematical models of the dynamics of the controlled object.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(26):158-170

INVESTIGATION OF DEPLETION OF WATER RESOURCES IN THE BASIS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS

#### Abstract

This article is about basic problems from water resources depletion. An actuality of impact of some factors on water resource depletion research is shown. A dynamics of the depletion is considered in a link with follow: volumes of fresh water use, volumes of recycled water, volumes of polluted water discharged, volumes of internal renewable water and percentage of marine protected areas. Factor and non-factor models of the depletion are built: linear multi-factor model, model in the state space, autoregressive models. Annual value series of factors are researched to pair correlation. Coefficients of models are determined by a least square method. A choice of the model is based on quality of approximation of source data and quality of post-forecast. The linear multi-factor model is the best in post-forecast and has satisfactory quality of the approximation. Controlled and independent from decision makers factors are substantiated. A forecast of water resources depletion with a persistence of factor trends is made. An increasing of the depletion is shown in conditions of the persistence. An analysis of possible situations in depend of uncontrolled factors is made for the nearest future. A worst combination of the independent factors is determined. It leads to the maximum depletion. Possibilities of decision makers are investigated for improving the situation by changing of controlled factors. It is shown that, although there are negative tendencies in the dynamics of water resources, and the effects of the external environment can worsen them, there are ways to effectively counteract them.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(26):171-182

THE STRATEGY FOR IMPLEMENTING STANDARD IT-SOLUTIONS FOR PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN THE AIRCRAFT ENGINE CORPORATION

#### Abstract

In article approach to unification and standardization (typification) of system models of management (business model management (BPM)) of productions in the aviation engine building corporation and realization on this basis of the standard design decisions providing a possibility of creation of effective corporate system of process production management is offered. The analysis of problems of management of productions in mechanical engineering in modern conditions is carried out. It is noted that the modern period of development of mechanical engineering is characterized by high rates of increasing production at simultaneous development of new production. Especially sharply this problem is shown in the conditions of the multi nomenclature production which is characterized by a large number of components and levels of the includes in finished products (tens and hundreds of thousands of names, tens of levels of the includes); combination of skilled and serial types of productions; variety of technological processes - foundry, forge, forming, machining, assembly, etc.; big stream of design and technological changes. Such situation leads to ex-potential increase in production and administrative information which gains properties of information BIG DATA resources. In these conditions of intensive increasing production and ex-potential growth of information requirements to reliability of data, both in production plans, and in dispatching reports on their realization become tougher. It is noted that the MRP and ERP standards of systems this way has received the name The Closed Cycle MRP (Closed Loop MRP), His Realization demands formalization of system of planning and production management before construction and application of standard BPM models. The example of creation of the developed automated system of planning and production management on Ufa Engine Industrial Association providing stability and rhythm of production at production in the set quantity and established periods is analyzed.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(26):183-197

ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL FOR DETECTING COMPUTER ATTACKS ON OBJECTS OF CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE

#### Abstract

The article deals with the relevance of the problem of computer attacks as the most dangerous form of information security threat materializing. It describes information systems of general use that are the most susceptible to computer attacks. The objects of critical information infrastructure are considered as the targets of computer attacks. Special focus was given to Russian legislative requirements directed to the protection of critical information infrastructure. The research considers the characteristics of the targeted computer attack and its features. The generalized structural scheme of the computer attack and the sequence of its form are examined. The article includes the search for effective algorithms for detection and analysis of the attacks. It presents the generalized characteristic of the main methods for detecting and analyzing computer attacks that are methods for analyzing signatures and methods for detecting abnormal deviations. The information needed to the identification of computer attacks is analyzed. The directions for searching and identifying the effective ways to detect computer attacks are suggested. There is the task to consider the development of algorithmic models providing the recognition of the image of an attack based on a set of its distinctive features. The concept of model adequacy is formulated, it is considered in two aspects: the adequacy of the prototype and the adequacy of the application of information protection measures. There are statements about the advisability of presenting the computer attack detection model in the form of a composition of two main components. The article includes the formation of models of attack on objects of a critical information infrastructure. There is the generalized functional scheme for the formation of the corresponding model. There are necessary analytical expressions for the development of algorithms. The mathematical model of computer attack detection based on the functional approach is proposed. The use of the functional approach presupposes the full set construction of secure conditions of an informational system and its further detection of computer attacks signs.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(26):198-213