## No 40 (2021)

**Year:**2021**Articles:**10**URL:**https://ered.pstu.ru/index.php/elinf/issue/view/212**DOI:**https://doi.org/10.15593/.v0i40

Articles

STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE LAYERED ARMATURE STRUCTUREOF THE INDUCTION MOTOR WITH RING WINDINGS ON THE MAGNETIC FLUXE DISTRIBUTION

#### Abstract

The induction motor with ring windings (IMRW) is designed for the processing of nuclear waste, the first prototype of IMRW was created by a scientific group of the Department of Electrical Engineering of the Ural Federal University together with the “Uralelectromash” plant in Kamensk-Uralsky. The advantage of this motor is stability to high levels of radiation and temperature due to the use of ceramic insulation for the stator windings, but tests of the prototype showed that the maximum and starting moments of the engine are less than the required by the technical specifications, and therefore a search for solutions to improve engine parameters is necessary. Purpose of the study: assessment of the effect of the layered structure of the IMRW stator core on the operating flux and leakage flux of the machine. The analysis of the electromagnetic core showed that the design feature of the magnetic system of an induction motor with ring windings leads to the appearance of two components of the magnetic flux - axial and radial, thus it is necessary to consider the effect of the layered structure of the stator core on the magnetic resistance for the axial component of the magnetic flux. The oxide or varnish coating of the steel sheets of the stator core, as well as the technological gaps between the sheets caused by pressure testing of the core during manufacture, increase the magnetic resistance, therefore, reduce the working magnetic flux in the air gap, the starting and maximum moments of the engine. Methods: as a solution to reduce the magnetic resistance in the axial direction of the magnetic flux and improve the output characteristics of the machine, it is proposed to use magnetic shunting in the stator yoke. Results: Modeling a motor with ring windings using a "ANSYS Maxwell" was provided. It allows to evaluate not only the effect of the layered structure of the stator core on the axial component of the magnetic flux, but also the efficiency of using magnetic shunts, as well as to quantitatively calculate the values of the magnetic flux at each section of the magnetic circuit and give recommendations for further improvement of the engine design. Practical relevance: The results obtained can be used to obtain a second prototype ADCO with improved mechanical characteristics.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2021;(40):5-26

IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF REACTIVE POWER REGULATION BY A CAPACITOR PLANT

#### Abstract

The problem of low accuracy of reactive power regulation by the most common three-part condenser installations in the industry and its impact on electricity quality indicators and energy consumption efficiency in industrial power supply systems is considered. The purpose of the study: to increase the accuracy of reactive power regulation by a three-piece capacitor plant by increasing the control stages from three to seven without changing the number of switching devices. To achieve this goal, a new principle of constructing a capacitor plant with a special method of seven-stage switching of capacitor banks is proposed. The practical significance of the work lies in the new construction of a capacitor bank consisting of three sets of capacitor banks with switching equipment and a method of seven-stage regulation of reactive power. The method of mathematical modeling using the Matlab software was used to conduct the research. The model has tested a method for switching on three-phase capacitor banks in combination with a method for regulating reactive power based on the proposed switching of three capacitor banks, in which the capacity of each subsequent battery is 2 times greater than that of the previous one. Results: numerical experiments have shown the possibility of implementing the method of seven-stage regulation by known three-part industrial installations. Soft shockless switching is also shown when switching from one stage of reactive power regulation to another due to a special method of connecting first two phases of the capacitor bank, and then the third. Combining the operations of these two methods improved the adjustment properties with an increase in the speed and accuracy of reactive power compensation. The results of the study of physical processes are presented, which make it possible to identify these properties. The model was used to work out actions for automating the processes of switching on and off the capacitor bank and switching capacitor banks for reactive power regulation, which will form the basis for further studies of stationary and dynamic modes of operation of a capacitive reactive power compensator in a closed auto-regulation system.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2021;(40):27-43

Increasing the efficiency of eddy-current separators with a traveling magnetic field

#### Abstract

Installations of electrodynamic separation in a traveling magnetic field are used in technologies for processing solid waste of production and consumption. They are used for the extraction of non-ferrous metal inclusions from the non-metal stream, as well as for the induction sorting of non-ferrous scrap and alloys. The article discusses the installation, which consists of a conveyor that moves the processed materials, and a linear inductor located under the conveyor belt. Purpose of the study: Increasing the technological and energy efficiency of electrodynamic separators based on linear inductors. Results: It was shown that to increase the degree of metal recovery from the waste stream without increasing energy consumption, it is advisable to use a linear inductor of a modular design. In this case, the modules are displaced relative to each other along the movement of the conveyor and the movement of the extracted particles. In the case of using three inductor modules, a possible rearrangement of the winding phases on separate modules, which ensures the symmetry of the phase currents of the separator. The equalization of the phase currents allows the reactive energy of the inductors to be fully compensated. At the same time, energy losses in the power supply system are reduced. The possibility of choosing the parameters of linear inductors at the design stage is shown, taking into account the achievement of a minimum consumption of the total power consumed by the separator from the network. Taking into account the possibility of compensating the reactive energy of the inductors, it is proposed to proceed to the selection of the parameters of the linear inductors according to the condition of achieving a minimum of the active power of the separator. The given examples of calculations of an experimental industrial model of an electrodynamic separator show that with this approach it is possible to adjust the parameters of the inductor, which provides an improvement in the technological and energy characteristics of the separator.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2021;(40):44-60

APPROACHES TO THE REPRESENTATION OF THE TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF CABLE LINES IN THE CHANNEL ON THEIR LOADING IN THE FORM OF A PARAMETRIC MODEL

#### Abstract

The cable lines used to power electrical installations differ in designs, operating conditions and placement. During the operation of cable structures, certain difficulties arise in monitoring the thermal condition of structural elements of cable lines. Timely determination of the maximum temperatures inside the cable and areas of possible overheating is necessary to maintain the operability of power supply systems. Therefore, today an urgent task is to develop methods for fast and low-cost determination of the thermal state of cable elements. Object of research: four cable lines located in an underground cable channel with specified ranges of operating current loads. The purpose of the study: to develop a methodology for operational forecasting of technological parameters of cable lines operation for various load conditions. Tasks: development of a mathematical model replacing field experiments; conducting a series of experiments and a set of statistical data; development of a parametric model based on the data obtained. Modeling and experimental part: at the first stage of the study, the real cable channel was replaced by its equivalent mathematical model based on basic conservation equations. The numerical implementation of the model was carried out using the Ansys complex. At the next stage, statistical data were collected using this model, which made it possible to switch to a polynomial parametric model reflecting the dependence of heating of cable line elements on current loads. The model takes into account the mutual influence of lines in the channel and environmental conditions. An assessment of the compliance of the results obtained using the parametric model with experimental data was carried out, which showed the operability of the proposed technique. Significance of the results obtained: the developed two-stage research methodology is applicable to the study of similar objects in the analysis of thermal processes.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2021;(40):61-75

Overview of Magnetic Structures of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Rotor

#### Abstract

The article is devoted to the consideration and comparison of various magnetic structures of rotors used in permanent magnet synchronous motors. In many areas of industry, operations performed on equipment require precise mechanical movement, whether assembly, grinding, welding operation, different positioning systems, like solar trackers. The classic implementation of such movements is to the use of a reduction electric drive on individual equipment nodes or to the installation of one drive for several operations (the concept of a “main” drive). However, in gears and converters to linear motion, there are always backlashes and gaps. In addition, the presence of additional flexible bonds introduces nonlinear perturbations into the movement of mechanisms. The development of modern electric drives and control systems allows them to abandon the use of kinematic converters and combine the motor with the load directly. An electric drive without the use of kinematic converters is a direct (gearless) electric drive. In such a drive, the force is transmitted without loss of speed and accuracy, there are no additional non-linearities and elasticities. In addition, due to the absence of wear on the mechanical parts, direct drive becomes more reliable than reduction drive. The most common in direct electric drives are permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) due to their best characteristics compared to other types of motor. Purpose: to consider the fundamental differences in the structures of the PMSM rotors. Methods: graphical study of magnetic structures, the use of PMSM equivalent circuits. Results. The influence of the arrangement of magnets on the characteristics of the motor is considered. Authors described the reluctance torque arising due to a rotor polarity in terms of its influence on motor control. A coefficient introduced that characterizes the anisotropy of the magnetic properties of the motor. Angular characteristics for different motor types and their influence on the stator current angle in motor control process shown.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2021;(40):76-92

DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY OF A CYLINDRICAL LINEAR VALVE MOTOR WITH PERMANENT MAGNETS FOR AN ELECTRIC DRIVE OF A GRINDING MACHINE

#### Abstract

The article discusses the step-by-step design of a cylindrical linear valve motor, which can be used as an electric drive for an actuator for direct application of materials. In a grinding machine, a linear motor can be used to organize a reciprocating motion, ensuring the movement of the washer. According to preliminary design calculations, the design of a cylindrical linear valve motor with permanent magnets has a number of features that must be taken into account during the production process. Purpose of the research: development of a technological process for the production of a cylindrical linear valve motor, taking into account the features of its non-standard design. Methods: the article presents the stages of the production cycle of a cylindrical linear valve motor in the form of an algorithm consisting of a sequence of operations. Results: the technological process presented in the article takes into account the recommendations for the choice of material and the features of the formation of the final product at each specific stage. The developed design of the electric machine was implemented in the form of a prototype, for the study of which an experimental test bench was also created in various configuration options. At this stand, research was carried out on a cylindrical linear valve motor for determining the tractive effort in order to confirm the accuracy of design calculations. The test results are presented, confirming a high degree of convergence of the calculated and experimental values of the traction force of the designed cylindrical linear valve electric motor. Practical significance: the results obtained confirm the possibility of creating a cylindrical linear valve motor of low power for organizing a reciprocating motion, which ensures the movement of the planer washer of a grinding machine.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2021;(40):93-108

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK FOR FPGA DEVICES AND MICROCONTROLLERS FOCUSED ON FOG COMPUTING

#### Abstract

It would be useful for modern projects using neural networks to unload computing centers by distributing computing power for neural network recognition in a distributed network. The aim of the study is to develop a method for synthesizing devices for implementing artificial neural networks on FPGAs and microcontrollers focused on fog computing. The basis for the creation of the devices in question will be an artificial neural network, which will need to be divided into several blocks. Each of these computing units will be executed on a separate physical device, communication between them will be carried out using standard channels and protocols. The research methodology is based on the analysis of information about existing neural networks and mathematical modeling of a neural network that will be suitable for operation in the fog computing mode. As a result of the research, it is planned to obtain a mathematical model of a neural network and a method for dividing a neural network into blocks that will work on terminal devices, and this method will also be tested on a test cascade of computing devices. The article considers the existing classes of artificial neural networks, based on the review obtained, the parameters of the networks with which work will be carried out within the framework of this study are selected. A mathematical model has been developed that allows a set of blocks to be obtained from a conventional neural network that is exclusively executed on one computing device, the sequential execution of which on a cascade of devices will lead to results similar to the results of the original network. Input parameters for the separation method have been selected, which will allow further experiments with devices.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2021;(40):109-129

LINEARIZATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF A HYBRID STEPPER MOTOR

#### Abstract

An important feature of mathematical models is the fact that it is possible to simplify their mathematical description. This is done not only because of this possibility, but also because of the need to increase its speed. The simpler the model, the faster the calculation of variables is, the easier it is to algorithmize. Simplification is a complex and important stage of model development, because it requires understanding of the main processes in the object under study. Purpose of work: to investigate the possibility of replacing the hybrid stepper motor model with a linearized stepper motor model to use this model in control system synthesis procedures. Methods: the mathematical model of hybrid stepper motor on the basis of Lagrange-Maxwell mathematical models has been investigated; the model of feedback system on the rotor position has been developed for possibility to control stepper motor by the angle of rotation of its rotor shaft; on the basis of these models the linearized model using the previously obtained load characteristic of stepper drive (drive consists of stepper motor and control driver) has been obtained. Results: the model of hybrid stepper motor and linearized model have been compared for the possibility of working out the necessary angle of rotation of the rotor, as well as working out the emergency mode of skipping steps when the load exceeds the maximum values. Practical significance: the obtained comparison results showed that for the synthesis of the control system there is no need to use a complete model of a stepper motor, with the available technical characteristics of the already existing stepper drive it is enough to make do with a simplified model.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2021;(40):130-148

SIMULATION OF STARTING MODES OF A SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR SUPPLIED FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

#### Abstract

Currently, the most common three main types of electrical machines - alternating (synchronous and asynchronous) and direct current. Each of them, due to the peculiarities of its design, has certain starting methods when operating in engine mode. The object of research in this article is a synchronous machine, which is of particular interest in comparison with other types of electromechanical converters due to its intensive use in power electric power plants not only as a source of electrical, but also mechanical energy, for which it becomes necessary to start it. There are several ways to start a synchronous motor, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages, for the identification of which the developed models of a synchronous machine and various types of sources of electrical energy were studied. Studies have shown that the most interesting are the frequency methods of starting a synchronous machine, since non-interference in the design of the machine will allow its continued operation. Purpose of the research: development of a model of a synchronous motor and various types of sources of electrical energy; investigation of the starting characteristics of a machine connected to various power sources. Methods: studies of the starting characteristics of a synchronous motor from various power sources were carried out in the Matlab (Simulink) environment, for which mathematical models of a synchronous motor and three power supplies were developed. Results: studies have confirmed that of the four ways to start a synchronous motor, the frequency one really has a number of advantages over the others. The time of the transient process with such a start of a synchronous motor is significantly reduced, therefore the efficiency of the machine is the greatest, since it quickly reaches the nominal mode and begins to perform its functions. The smallest thermal impulse observed in this case indicates low thermal losses, which also has a beneficial effect on the operation of the synchronous motor and power supply. However, the frequency start of a synchronous motor has a significant drawback - the starting current is of great importance, commensurate with the magnitude of the stator current during direct start. Practical significance: the analysis of the data obtained during the research, namely the start-up time, the magnitude of the thermal impulse and the critical moment, will allow in the future to optimally tune electric power systems containing synchronous motors in order to increase their efficiency, and also simplify the process of identifying the parameters of a synchronous machine, spectral and wavelet analysis of their transient processes.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2021;(40):149-180

SIMULATION OF FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLAR CELL BASED ON n-GaInAsP / p-Si HETEROSTRUCTURE IN AFORS-HET V.2.5 SOFTWARE

#### Abstract

The process of numerical modeling is an important step in obtaining new solar cells, since it eliminates the costs of developing, obtaining and researching their prototypes. In this work, the main parameters of the solar cell model were calculated on the Afors-HET v.2.5 program, which is well developed for these purposes. The characteristics of the solar cell were modeled sequentially depending on the thickness, doping level of the layers, temperature and texture of the solar cell surface. Purpose: modeling and research of current-voltage and spectral characteristics of the n -GaxIn1-xAsyP1-y/ p -Si heterostructure. Methods: for the study, a numerical simulation method was taken. The dependences of the efficiency on the emitter thickness in the range 200-1000 nm, the level of doping with impurities in the range 1×1016 - 1×1019 cm-3, temperatures from 300 to 400 K were obtained, short-circuit current from the thickness of the emitter. Results: the presented results demonstrate that the maximum efficiency of 22,31 % is achieved at an emitter thickness of 200 nm, a donor impurity concentration of 3×1017 cm-3, an acceptor impurity concentration of 2×1017 cm-3. The effect of surface texture in the form of inverted pyramids at an angle of 44,8° leads to an increase in efficiency from 22,31 to 22,34 %. As a result of the simulation, it was found that the maximum value of the efficiency of the solar cell equal to 22,34 %, with a short-circuit current density of 38,24 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 699,8 mV and a fill factor of 84.29% is possessed by a solar cell with composition Ga0.95In0.05As0.05P0.95/Si. Practical relevance: for the first time, the modeling of the surface texture of a solar cell by inverted pyramids in the Afors-HET program is described. Thus, a solar cell based on an n -GaInPAs/ p -Si heterostructure is competitive in all basic parameters to many single-junction solar cells.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2021;(40):181-187