## No 35 (2020)

**Year:**2020**Articles:**12**URL:**https://ered.pstu.ru/index.php/elinf/issue/view/217**DOI:**https://doi.org/10.15593/.v0i35

Articles

APPLICATION OF THE METHOD EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION FOR THE STUDY OF VOICED SPEECH IN THE PROBLEM OF DETECTING HUMAN STRESS EMOTIONS

#### Abstract

Human emotions can be expressed in several modal systems: speech, facial expressions and micro-expressions, oculomotor activity, body movement and position, biochemical blood test, etc. A method for recognizing emotions based on the analysis of speech signals is the most promising and adaptive one to modern conditions of human activity. Recognition accuracy of human emotions depends on correct determination of informative parameters that reflect an emotional component of speech. The aim of this work is to study the informative parameters of voiced speech that are relevant to disorders in functioning of the speech apparatus organs due to emotional stress arousal in a person. Materials and methods. A unique adaptive technology for analyzing non-stationary data, namely, an improved complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise, was used to conduct the research. The research was carried out in a mathematical modeling environment MatLab. Results . A method for processing voiced speech to be used in intelligent systems for recognizing human stressed states has been developed. The method is based on the principle that voiced speech fully reflects a disruption in the functioning of speech apparatus organs due to emotional stress. The method consists in decomposing voiced speech into empirical modes using improved decomposition, extracting modes containing periodic information about the excitation source of the vocal tract, and generating a composite signal reflecting information on glottal activity during speech vocalization. The results of investigating the method are presented, being the calculation of pitch frequency for 100 multiharmonic signals with modulation in the range of 0-2,5 Hz/ms, with a step of 0,5 Hz/ms. The modulation imitated the irregularity of vibrations in the vocal cords (30-40% of the nominal value) due to emotional stress arousal in a person. Conclusions . In accordance with the research results, the proposed method for processing voiced speech provides a stable measurement of the pitch frequency, including at the highest modulation value of 2,5 Hz/ms.It was concluded that the proposed method can be successfully tested in intelligent systems for recognizing human stressed states.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(35):7-29

EVALUATION OF CABLE CHANNEL PERFORMANCE BASED ON NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THERMODYNAMICS PROCESSES

#### Abstract

Determination of permissible operating currents in conditions of non-stationary loads and changes in the number of cable channel lines, as well as in emergency modes, is accompanied by certain difficulties due to the large number of influencing factors. The issue of using numerical modeling in the operation and design of cable structures of complex construction is relevant. Purpose: development of a control system for the distribution of electrical energy in the cable channel to improve the efficiency of use and ensure safe operation of power cables. Results: a block diagram of the cable channel current loading control system using a mathematical model is constructed to check the validity of prospective load conditions. The problem of evaluating the thermal modes of cable channel operation under changing loads was studied. A mathematical model of thermodynamic processes in an underground cable channel that includes several cable lines located in pipes and loaded unevenly is constructed. The temperature field of the channel in the initial operating mode is obtained. The perspective mode of operation of the channel in the conditions of laying an additional two-chain line in the backup pipes has been studied. Temperature fields in the channel with additional lines are obtained. Emergency modes of operation of the cable channel that can lead to significant heating of cable lines are investigated. Temperature fields of the channel under emergency operating conditions were obtained. Changes in the temperature of the most heated cable lines in the initial mode were evaluated in order to control not exceeding the maximum permissible values. Practical relevance: the developed control system using a mathematical model can be used in the design and operation of complex cable structures.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(35):30-42

PARAMETERS’ IDENTIFICATION OF ACCELERATION CHARACTERISTIC OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

#### Abstract

The paper deals with the parameters identification of an internal combustion engine based on its acceleration characteristics using the integral modulation method. The ICE model is approximated by a first-order inertial link. Approximation of the experimental acceleration characteristic by a linear model allows one to quickly identify the dynamic parameters of the object, such as the time constant and the sensitivity coefficient, on the basis of which the generalized state of the internal combustion engine of a car can be estimated by comparing these parameters with their standard values. Purpose of the study: operability assessment of the identification system under consideration, using the Matlab / Simulink simulation package. Methods: the fundamental possibility of using parametric identification based on the integral modulation method for functional testing of an internal combustion engine is shown. The efficiency of using the parametric identification method based on integral modulation in the system is due to the peculiarities of the latter nuclei which can be synthesized from the groups of parent functions of the wavelet transformation operators, which makes it possible not only to assess the unknown parameters of the object, but also to analyze the nonstationary transient processes that occur in ICE. Results: an important issue when creating a real system of express diagnostics is the integration of the proposed system of acceleration characteristics parametric identification of the internal combustion engine into the general on-board system of a car using a special diagnostic protocol, such as k-line. When using the diagnostic protocol, the variables values are given in physical quantities. This simplifies perception, at the same time, complicates coordination with the electronic control unit of the ECU, since it is programmed to receive data directly from sensors connected to the ADC channels. Thus, there is a need for a detailed study of the documentation of sensors to clarify their characteristics and signal levels. Practical significance: the proposed technique can also be used for the operating mode of an internal combustion engine, considering the gas pedal of a car as a source that forms an input signal for a given diagnostic object.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(35):43-56

ADAPTIVE FUZZY APPROACH TO CONTROLLING THE LEVEL OF CRUDE OIL IN THE SEPARATOR OF A BOOSTER PUMPING STATION

#### Abstract

The control of the operating modes of the booster pump station (BPS) is traditionally associated with the use of PID controllers. However, the uncertainty of the characteristics of the object, the nonlinearity of the object and the disturbances associated with a continuous change in the oil supply lead to fluctuations in flow and pressure in the pipeline and on the central control center. One of the effective ways to solve this problem is the use of intelligent systems. Continuous change in oil supply, change in the physicochemical composition of oil, ambient temperature, etc. leads to uncertainty in controlling the liquid level in the separator using a PID controller. In this case, it is advisable to use an adaptive fuzzy fluid level controller in the separator Purpose: to develop an adaptive fuzzy regulator of the level of crude oil in the separator. Methods: development of a mathematical model of automatic control of the liquid level in the separator, development of the architecture of a fuzzy controller, the use of sigmoidal membership functions in the adaptive fuzzifier with the correction of membership degrees by the method of sequential training, the use of Sugeno equations in a fuzzy inference block. Results: on the basis of the developed adaptive fuzzy level controller, the accuracy of maintaining the level with existing uncertainties has increased. The developed mathematical model of the separator confirmed the use of fuzzy control to solve the problem. The accuracy of maintaining the level of crude oil in the separator meets the specified requirements. Practical relevance: the research results were used to develop an adaptive fuzzy level controller for controlling the outflow of crude oil from the separator, which eliminated emergency situations when the separator was operated in the mode of variable inflow of crude oil from the rocking chair.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(35):57-70

VOLTAGE SYMMETRY AT THE OUTPUT OF THREE-PHASE INVERTER UNDER ASYMMETRIC LOAD

#### Abstract

The article discusses the balancing method of voltage in three-phase power supply system with neutral wire, containing a semiconductor three-phase bridge inverter as voltage converter. It is known that the main problem in the implementation of such systems is the balancing of the voltage at an unbalanced load. This is most often typical in the presence of household or industrial consumers of single-phase voltage. If you use converter with a sinusoidal voltage waveform, then the task of balancing it turns out to be very difficult. In many cases, for this purpose, transformations are used in rotating coordinate system with a transition from three-phase system to two-phase system, with correction of the resulting elliptical hodograph of the voltage vector obtained as a result of this transformation and the subsequent inverse transformation from two-phase system into three-phase system. As a result, the converter operation algorithm turns out to be very complex and requires the use of significant computing resources. At the same time, in the simplest case, for some consumers who are not very critical to the content of higher harmonics in the phase voltage, instead of sinusoidal one, a step voltage form can be formed. Moreover, in some cases, the content of higher harmonics will be very small. In particular, for 180-degree switching of power switches, the effective value of the first voltage harmonic will be 0.955 of the effective value of the total voltage, which is acceptable for most consumers, especially in rural areas. But at the same time, balancing issues are significantly simplified and boiled down to cycle-by-cycle opening of keys in an additional, fourth rack of the inverter. Purpose of the research: development balancing voltage method at the input of three-phase inverter with an unbalanced load. Methods: creation of discrete algorithm for controlling an additional inverter rack, based on the condition of ensuring the specified accuracy of balancing the output voltage. Results: the specified algorithm is implemented by a discrete voltage control device on the corresponding keys of the additional rack based on information received from the zero-point sensor of the three-phase load. Practical significance: the proposed balancing voltage method at the output of a three-phase inverter with an unbalanced load can be used to create autonomous mini-hydroelectric power plants intended for power supply of small settlements located in hard-to-reach areas.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(35):71-86

DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH OF A MODEL OF HIERARCHICAL OBJECT RECOGNITION SYSTEM FORASSESSING THE INFLUENCE OF IMAGE PARAMETERS ON SPEED OF RECOGNITION

#### Abstract

The article discusses the advantages of a hierarchical approach over standard recognition approaches: a decrease in the number of recognized pixels (by discarding image areas that do not carry useful information for the recognition process), and a decrease in the total image processing time. The essence of the hierarchical recognition method is that it adds preprocessing to the image, highlighting regions of interest in the image (ROI), and recognizes only them. To assess the influence of the hierarchical approach, it was decided to create an analytical model, the input parameters of which are the intensity of the appearance of objects in the recognition zone, the size of the object's image and the maximum possible speed of image processing by the system (under heavy load, the system performance decreases). The model calculates the intensity of servicing requests based on the permissible size of the region of interest (ROI), takes into account the possibility of parallelizing the object recognition process at the expense of the released computing resources. The results obtained during the simulation help to analyze the prospects for applying the hierarchical recognition method for each specific system and to perform a preliminary calculation of the average processing time for one request. Purpose: creating an analytical model for calculating parameters of a hierarchical object recognition system. For this, methods from the theory of mass service systems, the theory of teletrafics and statistical analysis were applied. Results: calculation of optimal characteristics of the system (recommended image size for coarse and accurate search) in conditions of a given image size and the time required by the algorithm for processing one pixel. A version of approximate calculation of object recognition time on an image by a hierarchical recognition system is proposed.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(35):87-101

AUTOMATION OF POST-EXPERIMENTAL PROCESSING AND STORAGE OF BENCH TEST DATA

#### Abstract

Post-experimental processing of data obtained as a result of bench tests is the final and very important stage in the test production of complex products. Closely related to the task of data processing is the task of structuring and storing the huge amount of data generated by tests. Current storage methods are based on manual structuring of test data. Most of the information to be accumulated consists of the results of monitoring the parameters of the test process, the so-called trends. When observing, the values of the parameters are fixed and tied to the moment of observation, i.e. are time series. The use of traditional RDBMS for storing such data is unjustified, since they are not suited for efficient storage and processing of time series. Research objective: development of a system for collecting, processing and storing data. Methods: selection and justification as an alternative to RDBMS for storing test data of a document-oriented database. Creation of a complex of applications - an ecosystem of data storage and processing, designed to import data into the system and process it. Results: on the basis of the proposed method of storing data in a document-oriented database, structures were developed that provide storage of all complex information about tests. A software package has been developed that implements such system functions as: importing test data into the Database, viewing a trend, parameters, associated documents, searching and extracting data. The most demanded by users function for processing test data is the search for characteristic features of product behavior, i.e. analysis of trends. As events characterizing the behavior of a trend, such events as falling of a parameter value (or its derivative) into a given range, reaching a minimum/maximum of a parameter value, switching a state of a discrete parameter, etc. are considered. A method is proposed for organizing complex search queries that combine the description of several events using AND, OR. Practical significance: the developed unified system for collecting, processing and storing data on the tests performed provides data processing specialists with a powerful analysis tool.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(35):102-118

MATHEMATICAL MODEL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESS PEROXIDE CROSS-LINKING OF CABLE INSULATION ON MEDIUM VOLTAGE

#### Abstract

In the production of medium and high voltage cables, insulation is most often cross-linked by the peroxide method. This process of crosslinking is technically complex and to obtain high-quality insulation, it is necessary to correctly select and control the technological mode, so there is a problem in the production of selecting parameters such as the temperature of the sections, the speed of movement of the billet. These parameters can be determined empirically or by calculation. Since the experimental path involves a large expenditure of material and time, it is preferable to use the calculated method of determination. Purpose: development of a mathematical model of heat and mass transfer processes in an inclined line of cable insulation vulcanization. The definition of rational modes of operation of the equipment. Results: an axisymmetric problem of heat and mass transfer in a vulcanization tube is implemented using the finite element method, temperature fields are obtained along the entire length of the vulcanization line, and parameters of the optimal operating mode of the vulcanization line are determined. To solve the problem, a regression expression is used to determine the degree of cross-linking in cross sections and along the length of the insulation coating. The model geometry was implemented using the ANSYS ICEM CFD grid generator, and the calculation was performed by the ANSYS Fluent solver. To confirm the adequacy of the developed model, a full-scale experiment was conducted to determine the maximum temperature in isolation, and a comparison was made with the results of numerical calculation. The convergence of the developed model is evaluated, as well as the adequacy of the model is evaluated by comparing it with similar studies. The study obtained temperature distribution curves on the surface of the core and insulation along the length of the vulcanization line. The influence of such production factors as the insulation rate and the heating mode of the line on the temperature distribution is estimated. Based on the data obtained, the degree of insulation cross-linking was calculated and the optimal technological mode of cross-linking was presented. Practical relevance: the possibility of using the proposed mathematical model to describe vulcanization processes for a wide range of type of medium and high voltage cables, the choice of rational parameters of the vulcanization mode for the designed lines and correction of existing technological modes, which will increase the productivity of the line without losing the quality of manufactured products.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(35):119-132

ALGORITHM FOR FINDING THE CONTOUR OF A BUSINESS REMAINDER OF A NON-STANDARD FORM USING DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY USING THE PYTHON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE BASED ON THE OPENCV COMPUTER VISION LIBRARY

#### Abstract

In the modern world, due to the rapid development of technologies and the growth of their volumes, there is a need for timely search for information contained in digital images. The discovery of objects in photos is of great interest due to their wider use in everyday life. This technology was driven by an increase in computing power available in software and hardware. In the scientific field, the problem of finding and recognizing objects in an image is quite relevant, but they are focused on recognizing their contours, without reducing the contour to real dimensions, and do not solve the problem in full. Purpose: develop an algorithm for finding the contour of the business balance, non-standard form, from a digital photo. Methods: after correcting the perspective of the digital photo, to get a top - down view, the contour of the A4 sheet was found to bring the image to real dimensions. After getting the image with the actual dimensions, the contour of the business remainder is found. Results: the perspective correction functions allow you to get a top-down view of the image to get accurate contours. Using the Canny segmentation method, all the contours in the image were found. Approximating the image contours, the contour of the A4 sheet with its coordinates is found. After calculating the Euclidean distance between the coordinates and comparing it with the known dimensions of the A4 sheet, the image is converted to the exact size, where 1 pixel in the image is equal to 1 mm. After performing a number of morphological operations, a single closed contour with real dimensions is obtained, which contains all the coordinates of the business remainder. The efficiency of the algorithm is analyzed and the main advantages of the algorithm are revealed. Practical relevance: the developed algorithm allows you to reduce the time spent on manual measurements, and the resulting contour receives real data on the business balance.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(35):133-151

REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF THE CLIMATIC FACTORS INFLUENCE ON THE ELECTRIC CONSUMPTION OF OIL PRODUCTION FACILITIES

#### Abstract

The development of the country's economy is focused on the priority technologies, including those that ensure high energy efficiency of production facilities. The oil production efficiency presupposes a complex consideration of factors affecting the power consumption of oil production facilities, including methods of equipment operation and maintenance, technological modes of operation, various physical, geographical, climatic and other conditions of their functioning. To assess the influence of climatic factors, it is advisable to use mathematical modeling methods that allow to analyze the current data on the facility condition and identify the most critical indicators that should be taken into account when predicting electricity consumption and planning the oil production process. Purpose: formation and testing of a methodology for assessing the influence of climatic factors on the oil production facilities power consumption using the available statistical information on their functioning. Methods: regression analysis of statistical data on the oil fields operation, including data on the power supply system configuration, existing electricity consumers and consumption volumes, operating modes of facilities, as well as data from meteorological services. Results: based on the analysis of the peculiarities of the oil fields operation, a procedure for assessing the influence of climatic factors on its power consumption was proposed. The method is based on the use of regression analysis and formalization of analytical dependences of consumption on various climatic factors, taking into account the detailing of the object structure, changes in its operating modes and seasonality. Recommendations regarding the formation and processing of the initial data for analysis have been formed. Practical testing of the method on the example of an oil field located in the Perm region has been carried out. The procedure for increasing the objectivity of the regression analysis results is described and analytical dependences of power consumption on meteorological factors of temperature, pressure, air humidity and wind speed were obtained. Practical relevance: the method is universal and can be applied at typical facilities, as well as in related industries. The developed analytical dependencies allow taking into account the influence of key climatic factors on the oil production facilities power consumption, which can be an important stage in planning and managing the operating modes of facilities to improve the oil production process economic efficiency.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(35):152-168

METHOD OF LINEARIZATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF HOLONOMIC INFORMATION-MEASURING AND MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS

#### Abstract

The holonomic property is mainly held by mechatronic systems which are capable to change orientation in its coordinate system without changing the space position. The limitation conditions, applied on holonomic systems decrease its level of freedom. Formally, the holonomic limitation is determined as link function at the space of system configuration. In measuring-information systems solution of tasks on increase of reliability, accuracy and optimization of both parts of and whole system is possible by adding exorbitance using additional holonomic relations. Aim of research: development the method of linearization optimization of holonomic information-measuring and mechatronic systems. Methods: in order to explain the suggested method main suggestions of the task on determination of non-conditional maximum of functional characterized as task of non-conditional variation calculation are used. Results: the critics of classic rule of optimization theory stating that if the system reaches minimum on chosen criteria, to optimize the same system on maximum it is sufficient to use this criteria by negative sign. This rule being logically true contradict with tasks solved by developer of the system because developer firmly defined the criteria of optimality of constructed system and cannot change it. It is mathematically proved that if the searched function of holonomic relation imposed by integral limitation condition provides minimum (maximum) of Lagrange target functional then if the integrant of target functional could be linearized then always one can find function, Inversed in regard of link function, upon which the maximum (minimum) of the functional is provided. Thus, the optimization task is solved not by substitution of optimality criteria, but by correction of internal relations in developed system. Practical significance: results obtained in this work can be used in development of different information - measuring and mechatronic systems of different designations.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(35):169-183

USE OF MATRIX-TOPOLOGICAL METHOD TO CALCULATE ELECTRIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION FROM A PREVIOUSLY FORMATED DATA SET

#### Abstract

The issues of rational use, control and saving of energy resources are considered as relevant both at the current moment of time and in the long term. A comprehensive solution to the problems of reducing energy costs and increasing energy efficiency presupposes a competent enterprises energy policy through the construction and development of energy management systems. The basis of such systems is made up of mechanisms for collecting, processing and analyzing data obtained using various information and analytical solutions, monitoring and control means that allow determining key indicators that characterize the production activities efficiency. The presence of a large number of factors associated with a change in the parameters of the electric power system necessitates the use of mathematical modeling methods of power consumption to assess and predict such indicators. Purpose: development of a methodology for calculating the consumption and distribution of electricity based on the matrix-topological method in the power supply system of oil fields using information from existing monitoring systems. Methods: linearization of data in a time series to filter the original array of information. Filtered arrays of information are used as the basis for a combined dataset for matrix-topological calculations. Results: a method and an algorithm for matrix-topological calculation of power consumption of oil production facilities was developed. The method allows to form an initial set of analytical data using a minimum amount of information coming from monitoring systems in the process of oil production, to create a single dataset of an enterprise power supply system using mathematical models of its individual elements, and also to carry out, according to the generated dataset, the calculation of the distribution (consumption) of electrical energy within the entire field using the matrix-topological method. On the basis of the proposed method of matrix-topological calculation, an assessment of electricity consumption was made using the example of the Sukharev field of the company LLC LUKOIL-PERM. Practical relevance: the developed methodology can be used to simulate various production situations, form balance orders, simplify the process of selecting equipment or making decisions.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(35):184-201