Construction and Geotechnics

Периодичность: 4 номера в год

Издательство: Пермский национальный исследовательский политехнический университет, Пермь, Россия

Язык: Русский, английский

Главный редактор: профессор, д-р техн. наук А.Б. Пономарев

Контакты редакции:

Адрес редакции: 614990, г. Пермь, Комсомольский пр-т, 29, Пермский национальный исследовательский политехнический университет,
редакция журнала «Construction and Geotechnics»
Телефон: +7(342)2198377
e-mail: cgscimag@gmail.com 

Журнал «Construction and Geotechnics» является периодическим печатным научным рецензируемым журналом.

Журнал «Construction and Geotechnics» зарегистрирован в Федеральной службе по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор), свидетельство ПИ № ФС77-77999 от 03 марта 2020 года. Подписной индекс в объединенном каталоге «Пресса России» – 45010.
Журнал выпускается Пермским национальным исследовательским политехническим университетом. Журнал выходит 4 раза в год.

Журнал предназначен для исследователей, аспирантов и гражданских инжеренров интересущихся современными исследованиями в различных областях строительства, включая геотехнику, технологи  строительства , строительную механику, транспортное строительство, экологию и другие.

Журнал входит в Перечень рецензируемых научных изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертаций на соискание ученой степени кандидата наук, на соискание ученой степени доктора наук по научным специальностям:

05.23.02 – Основания и фундаменты, подземные сооружения (технические науки),
05.23.03 – Теплоснабжение, вентиляция, кондиционирование воздуха, газоснабжение и освещение (технические науки),
05.23.04 – Водоснабжение канализация, строительные системы охраны водных ресурсов (технические науки),
05.23.05 – Строительные материалы и изделия (технические науки),
05.23.08 – Технология и организация строительства (технические науки),
05.23.11 – Проектирование и строительство дорог, метрополитенов, аэродромов, мостов и транспортных тоннелей (технические науки),
05.23.17 – Строительная механика (технические науки),
05.23.19 – Экологическая безопасность строительства и городского хозяйства (технические науки).

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Current Issue

Vol 11, No 1 (2020)

EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF THE BASIS OF “FUNDEX” PILES AFTER THE LONG “RELAXATION” IN CLAY SOILS
Savinov A.V., Frolov V.E., Brovikov Y.N., Kozhinskiy M.P.

Abstract

In the soil conditions, typical for the city of Saratov, piles on Fundex technology with a loss screw tip of DPOS-4E are executed. After the long «relaxation» of piles without loading guaranteeing completion generally of processes of compaction, consolidation, restitution of the water and colloid communications additional engineering-geological researches are executed and the complex of laboratory researches of parameters of the near pile array of a soil is conducted. Physicomechanical characteristics of the basis immediately at a lateral area and at the lower end of a pile, apart by 1 m are received from its side and in a soil of natural addition. Results are compared in a tabular and graphic form. Conclusions are drawn on the nature of changes of physical, strength and deformation characteristics of the near pile array of a soil at various distance from a lateral area of a pile. The essential differences in formation of the condensed soil zones around Fundex piles from the traditional displacing drive and pressed piles influencing a carrying capacity (the extreme resistance) of the basis of stuffed piles are noted. Comparison of the obtained datas of laboratory with results of field tests of similar piles in identical soil conditions after long “relaxation” (3 months) in accordance with static indenting and pull out loads. Conclusions are drawn on need of additional pilot studies of the basis of Fundex piles for the wide range of soil conditions by laboratory and field methods with parallel tests by the dead pressing and pulling-out loads.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(1):5-19
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DETERMINATION OF AN INCLINATION ANGLE OF THE MOST PROBABLE DESTRUCTION SITE AT THE GROUND POINT
Bogomolova O.A., Zhidelev A.V.

Abstract

The paper considers three approaches to determining the angle of inclination of the most likely fracture site at a point in the soil mass. It is shown that the value of the safety factor at a point located in the thickness of the soil substantially depends on the orientation angle of the fracture site, which, in turn, is a function of the geometric parameters (cross-sectional shape) of the studied soil mass, its stress state, and the physicomechanical properties of the component soil mass: specific adhesion, angle of internal friction, density and lateral pressure coefficient. Comparison of the results of numerous calculations allows us to conclude that in the soil mass there are so-called equidistant zones, which are characterized by the fact that the values of the safety margins calculated for the sliding or abutment surfaces located inside these zones for each specific object either coincide, or differ from each other very slightly. This circumstance leads to the fact that the process of sliding (sliding) of the ground mass, if a landslide process is considered, or the soil is burst out from under the foundation when the question of determining the bearing capacity of the foundation of the structure is considered, does not take place on the so-called fracture surface, but passes to the limiting state a certain layer of soil, inside of which there is the most likely surface of sliding or abutment. Based on a comparison of the results of the calculations, it is concluded that it is necessary to conduct an operation to find the orientation angles of the fracture sites based on the analysis of the stress-strain state of the soil mass taking into account the physicomechanical properties of the composing soil.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(1):20-29
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INCREASING THE STABILITY OF THE SAND CUSHION BY PRESTRESSING THE REINFORCING LAYERS OF GEOSYNTHETICS
Shiranov A.M., Nevzorov A.L.

Abstract

The use of prestressing of geosynthetics allows accelerate their inclusion in work, reduce deformations and gaining bearing capacity of artificial foundation. The article presents results of research of two methods of construction reinforced sand cushions. In the first case, the effect of prestressing is achieved due to a certain order of layer-by-layer soil compaction of the cushion, in the second - by laying of the swellable material between the contours of the foundations. The experiments were carried out in a laboratory tank with a pneumatic loading device. There are three stamps united by a common frame on the surface of the cushion. To assess the stress-strain state of the soil foundation, the non-contact digital tracer imaging method was used. The experimental results are presented in the graphs form of the dependence of the stamp settlement on pressure and vector fields of particle movements. Modeling has confirmed the high efficiency of prestressing. The ultimate pressure on the soil foundation with two-layer horizontal reinforcement and prestressing of the reinforcing layers in the first method was 195 kPa, in the second method - 165 kPa, whereas in the absence of prestressing this value was 110 kPa. Foundation deformations also decreased significantly.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(1):30-40
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REDUCTION VIBRATIONS OF THE PILE FOUNDATIONS FOR MACHINES UNDER DYNAMIC LOADS BY HIGH-PRESSURE GROUP INJECTION METHOD
Nuzhdin M.L., Nuzhdin L.V.

Abstract

The vibration parameters of the foundations under dynamic loads or kinematic excitation directly depend on the stiffness and damping parameters of the base, the mass of the oscillating system consisting foundation, the machine and the «attached mass of soil». In the process of using pile foundations static load is transferred to the piles, the contact of the grillage with the ground is broken, and micro-gaps are formed. Micro-gaps impede the joint work of the soil mass of the inter-pile space with the foundation. An effective way to reduce the vibration parameters of foundations is the method of high-pressure group injection. The essence of the method lies in injection of a mobile cement-sand mortar into the soil base under the sole of the grillage under pressure exceeding the structural strength of the soil simultaneously through several injectors. The injection mixture eliminates micro-gaps and hardens the soil, which leads to an increase in the rigidity of the base and the involvement of an additional volume of soil mass in joint work with the foundation. The inclusion of inter-pile soil in joint work significantly increases the mass of the oscillating system and, as a result, reduces the parameters of horizontal and vertical vibrations of the pile foundation under dynamic loading and in the case of kinematic excitation. Injectors are immersed under the sole of the grillage through specially provided openings - injection conductors. The discharge points are usually located between piles and around the perimeter of the grillage. The parameters of the injection work (the number of injection points and their placement in the plan, the height of the injection horizons, the required volume of injected solution, the injection sequence, etc.) are assigned depending on the construction of the pile foundation, the engineering and geological conditions of the site, the dynamic operating mode of the equipment, and others factors. Strengthening pile foundations for machines under dynamic loads or vibration-sensitive equipment by high-pressure group injection can significantly reduce the amplitude of horizontal and vertical vibrations of foundations.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(1):41-52
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INVESTIGATION OF INFLUENCE OF THERMOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL MASSIF ON THE VALUE OF THERMAL ENERGY TAKEN BY ENERGY EFFICIENT PILE
Ovchinnikov N.M., Zaharov A.V.

Abstract

The depletion of traditional fossil energy sources leads to an increasing development of non-traditional energy sources. One of the promising directions of alternative energy is the use of low-potential energy of the soil massif for heating buildings and structures for various purposes. Heat extraction is possible through the use of energy-efficient Foundation structures. However, their rational design is impossible without a careful assessment of a large number of factors that affect the potential value of thermal energy extracted from the earth's thickness. The purpose of this work was to build a whole methodology to assess the degree of influence of thermophysical characteristics of the soil mass, in particular, such as heat capacity and thermal conductivity, on the amount of heat energy selected energy-efficient pile. The formulation and analysis of the numerical experiment to identify the desired dependencies. The matrix of experiment planning is made. The numerical simulation of the energy-efficient pile of different geometric parameters in different soil conditions is performed. Statistical processing of the obtained experimental data was carried out. A quadratic regression equation was developed to determine the amount of heat through the side surface of the pile depending on the length of the pile, its diameter, heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the soil. The analysis of this equation for the purpose of estimation of degree of influence of initial thermophysical parameters of soil on value of thermal energy of the selected pile is carried out.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(1):53-61
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METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF THE WALLS OF A DRILLING WELL WHEN INSTALLING BORED PILES
Popov D.V., Savinova E.V.

Abstract

In this article, the authors aim to consider a fundamentally new methodology for calculating the stability of the walls of a borehole in the manufacture of foundations using bored piles. This kind of foundations is increasingly used in construction practice in connection with the growing and compacting development of not only civil buildings, but also of reconstructed industries. There is a need for a more detailed consideration of external factors (in the area of soil massifs) that affect the stability of the walls of the borehole in the thickness of the soil. According to the authors, the technique establishes a relationship between the geometric parameters of the borehole, which include the depth of the borehole and its constant diameter throughout, and the physical and mechanical characteristics of the soil (specific gravity, angle of internal friction, and deformation modulus) of the construction site. The proposed calculation method allows us to determine at the design stage the need for additional measures to protect the walls of the wells from collapse when installing bored piles. Additional measures include the use of drilling fluids, the use of casing pipes and more. The need for the appointment of these measures entails the emergence of a significant economic component in the final cost of the object. When carrying out design work, modern realities require a detailed justification of the decisions made in order to reduce material consumption and labor intensity, and ultimately the cost of the facilities. According to the results of the work done in the course of the mathematical experiment, the necessary dependence was established by the authors of the article. The borehole will maintain its geometric immutability in the case when the stress in the soil is less than the rigidity of the soil element allocated for the construction of a mathematical experiment.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(1):62-67
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CAUSES OF DEFORMATION OF THE FOUNDATION STRUCTURES OF THE PASSENGER TERMINAL AIRPORT "SOKOL" (MAGADAN)
Vlasov V.P., Bolotin A.V., Sergeev S.M., Lunegova A.A.

Abstract

The main purpose of the reconstruction of this airport is to ensure that the engineering infrastructure complies with the modern requirements of air transportation services and transport security. In our opinion, the list of objects of reconstruction, which now includes an apron, lighting equipment, two checkpoints, a system for lighting aircraft parking places, a water supply network, communications, heat, perimeter fencing, etc., must necessarily enter and passenger terminal. While it is not listed. The article deals with the problem of determining the reliability and future operational suitability of the base and foundations of the passenger terminal at the «Sokol Magadan Airport» with a service life of more than 50 years. In this regard, a brief description of the natural conditions of the territory of the specified object is given. The peculiarity of the construction area is its seismicity (up to 8 points), deep seasonal freezing and insular distribution of permafrost soils. The problem is due to the fact that this building, consisting of two independent blocks, each of which was erected in different years on different types of pile foundations, practically began to undergo deformations after their commissioning. These deformations are manifested and manifest now on the external and internal walls in the form of cracks of different sizes. An attempt to determine their causes was made during the construction of the second half of the building, but it coincided in time with the collapse of the USSR, and therefore was not brought to a logical end. The object was put into operation without correcting the existing errors in the foundation device and foundation structures, as well as the necessary strengthening measures in such cases. In the future, it was limited to periodic redecoration and decommissioning of the most dangerous premises for people to visit. The present paper assesses the very difficult natural conditions of the territory (climate, island degrading permafrost, seismic), where the «Sokol Airport» has been operating for more than half a century. During this time, many objects of its engineering infrastructure as a result of negative interaction with the environment have received noticeable physical and moral deterioration. These include the passenger terminal. In this regard, they almost all need modern modernization and reconstruction, especially since «Sokol Airport» has received international status of Federal significance. The article substantiates the need for a geotechnical survey of the base and foundations of a deformable building. The implementation of this work is due to the alleged reprofiling of the problem building under the cargo terminal. The results of the survey will be used in the design of a new passenger terminal.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(1):68-79
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EFFICIENCY OF GAS-FIRED HEAT GENERATORS FOR INDIVIDUAL AND DECENTRALIZED HEATING SYSTEMS
Beloglazova T.N., Elkina A.I.

Abstract

Modern equipment for heating systems of residential consumers, public buildings is characterized by a significant variety of design and efficiency. Gas-fired heat generators have several advantages when compared with devices on other types of fossil fuels. The main advantages of gas heat equipment are to reduce emissions into the environment, increase the efficiency. For consumers, an important aspect is the economic reduction of heating costs, the ability to control and regulate, the high security of modern systems using gas fuel. The safe use and high efficiency of gas heating equipment depends on a number of factors. The first, it is the use of gas fuel corresponding to the specified parameters. Secondly, it is the organization of the process of supplying air and removing combustion products for burning. Thirdly, it is the process of supplying gas with specified parameters, which is determined by the process of functioning of the gas distribution network. The article describes the work of gas heat generators at different temperatures of the incoming combustion air. Depending on the installation of the equipment, the air temperature for combustion may differ significantly from the temperature at which the heat generators were tested. Thus, the efficiency will differ from that stated in the passport when the temperature of the air entering the combustion changes. In the gas heat generators, there are a number of losses associated with chemical, mechanical incomplete burning, losses with products of combustion. In the work, all losses were analyzed, and the efficiency of a gas heat generator of 60 kW power was determined. As a result of the study, the annual effect in terms of gas volume was determined for given conditions.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(1):80-91
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APPLICATION OF ANTHRACITE FLOTATION ENRICHMENT WASTE IN PRODUCTION OF POROUS AGGREGATE BASED ON LIQUID-GLASS COMPOSITIONS
Abdrakhimov V.Z.

Abstract

Reduction of reserves of traditional natural raw materials for production of porous aggregates forces to look for new ways of its replacement by various types of technogenic raw materials. At the same time, the experience of advanced Western foreign countries has shown the practical, economic, environmental and technical feasibility of this direction and application as a tool for protecting the natural environment from pollution. In the present work it is shown that the most appropriate use wastes fuel and energy complex in the manufacture of insulating materials, such as porous aggregates with heat conductivity not more than 0.25 W/m•operating system. Waste from anthracite flotation enrichment was used as a thinning agent and burnout additive. Waste flotation enrichment of anthracites have an increased content of PP (loss during calcination = 42.4 %) and carbon content (C = 13.84 %), so they were used for the production of porous aggregate not only as a thinner, but also as burnout additives. Developed on the basis of waste flotation enrichment of anthracites and beet compositions for porous aggregates, which have high rates of compressive strength and softening factor, and the mark on the bulk density does not exceed M400. Studies have shown that the porosity on the exterior of the product, in contrast to the internal almost no form, ie waste flotation enrichment of anthracites contributes to the porous filler closed pores. The presence of pores of isometric shape and oval closed porosity in the porous filler gives it mechanical strength, and slit-like pores have a harmful effect. Innovative proposals for obtaining a porous aggregate have been developed. A patent of the Russian Federation was obtained for the obtained method of producing a porous filler based on a liquid-glass composition.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(1):92-101
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FEATURES OF THE FORMATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF A CEMENTLESS MATRIX COMPOSITE BASED ON MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED TECHNOGENIC RAW MATERIALS
Korneyeva E.V., Berdov G.I., Sozinov S.A.

Abstract

The creation of composite materials using mechanically activated technogenic raw materials is relevant today as part of a large-scale task of construction and technological utilization of technogenic formations. The change in the crystal structure using mechanochemistry increases the activity of technogenic products: the number of coagulation contacts of dissimilar particles increases, increases the plastic strength of the hardening mixture, formation of hydration products is accelerated. The article is devoted to the study of the mechanism of structural and rheological transformations of a cementless hardening system based on activated steelmaking. Steel melting slags were used as raw materials - energy-saturated large-capacity waste of the West-Siberian Metallurgical Combine (Novokuznetsk). As components - activators - waste from the coal industry of the «Abashevskaya» mine (Novokuznetsk) - burnt rocks with heaps and slimes, obtained by neutralization of spent acid battery electrolytes with lime batteries for industrial vehicles. Based on used mechanically activated technogenic raw materials the binder composite material of the matrix structure is obtained. To assess structural and material changes in the hardening system comprehensive physical and chemical studies were carried out: IR - spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and x-ray phase analysis. Electron microscopy investigated the structure of the stone. It was found that the matrix structure of the composite material is a dispersion medium - matrix of dense fine-grained masses calcium sulfate hydrate; dispersed phase from lamellar crystals of quartz and magnesium oxide, and tubular crystals of calcium orthosilicate; and transitional interfacial layer from structured grains of calcium hydrosulfoaluminate. In the process of forming the structure interdependence of phases from each other was accompanied by a sequential transition of some types of structures to others: coagulation→ crystallization- condensation→ crystallization. The article presents the results of the self-organization of the structure, the interaction of oxide systems in the process of hydration is considered, major mineral neoplasms are established, possessing astringent properties and providing strong bonds between structure-forming components.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(1):102-114
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COUNTRY HOUSE IN STYLE GLASS FACHWERK
Zubareva G.I.

Abstract

The urgency of the design and construction of country houses in the style of fachwerk is noted. The definition of fachwerk is given. The system of criteria characterizing the fachwerk is listed: the presence of a frame with braces and enclosing filling with various materials: clay, ceramic brick, natural stone. It is noted that glass is one of the most popular materials used in construction, including individual houses. The concept of glass fachwerk as a frame with glazing elements is defined. It is noted that with the advent of new building materials and tools, the construction of country houses using the glass fachwerk technology underwent many changes that affected virtually all the elements of the house's construction: foundation, frame, joint system, roof, roof and glass. The modern technology for the construction of glass fachwerk is described. The requirements for double-glazed windows fachwerk are discussed: high strength, increased sound and heat insulation, protection from solar ultraviolet radiation. A wide range of double-glazed windows satisfying these requirements is given: sun-reflecting, energy-saving, multifunctional and safe (triplex) glasses. The advantages and disadvantages of suburban half-timbered glass houses are discussed. It is shown that the individuality of a glass-fachwerk country house is achieved by the variability of its glazing: frame, frameless, and also depending on the percentage of glazing at home. The conclusion is made about the prospects of country houses in the style of glass half-timbered for the regions of Russia, taking into account the use of new building materials.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(1):115-124
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