Construction and Geotechnics

Frequency: Quarterly

Publisher: Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation

DOI:  10.15593/2224-9826

Languages: Russian, English

Editor-in-Chief: Professor, Dr. Sci. Andrey B. Ponomaryov

Executive Editor: C.Sci. Dmitrii G. Zolotozubov

Editorial Contact:

Address: Editorial Board "Construction and Geotechnics", Russian Federation, Perm, 614990, Komsomolsky ave., 29
Phone: +7 (342) 2-198-377

Construction and Geotechnics  is an open-access periodical published scientific peer-reviewed journal.

Construction and Geotechnics has no article processing and/or article submission charges.

All Journal's Content, including articles,  is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0). Editorial of the Journal allows readers to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and allows readers to use them for any other lawful purpose in accordance with Budapest Open Access Initiative's definition of Open Access.

Journal intended for researchers specializing and civil engineers in the field of construction, geotechnics, building technology, structural mechanics, transport construction, environmental engineering.

Until 2012, Journal was named «Bulletin of Perm State Technical University. Construction and Architecture», since 2012 to 2019 Journal was named «Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Construction and Architecture» (ISSN 2224-9826).


The journal is indexed in the RSCI (Russian Science Citation Index - top 1000 Russian journals on the Web of Science platform).



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Current Issue

Vol 13, No 4 (2022)

Calculation of effective schemes for strengthening shallow foundations by contour reinforcement with hard elements
Nuzhdin M.L., Ponomaryov A.B.


An effective way to strengthen shallow foundations is contour reinforcement - the execution of vertical elements in the soil base along the edges of the foundation. The introduction of reinforcement elements that perform the function of a "compression wall" leads to a noticeable decrease in deformations and an increase in the bearing capacity of the soil at the base of the reinforced foundations. As reinforcing elements, various structures and materials with strength properties that exceed the corresponding properties of the soil can be used. A positively recommended method for the formation of reinforcement elements is group high-pressure injection. The essence of the method lies in the simultaneous supply of a cement-sand mortar through several sources installed in a row, under pressure exceeding the structural strength of the soil and the subsequent creation of flat vertical injection bodies of conditionally rectangular shape in the soil. An important issue in contour reinforcement is the determination of the optimal injection parameters - the number and spacing of injection bodies in plan and in depth, which can lead to a significant reduction in cost of work. To determine the rational parameters of the contour reinforcement with injection bodies, a set of numerical experiments was performed to calculate the stress-strain state of the soil foundation for different reinforcement schemes in the MIDAS GTS NX 2019 software package. The calculations were carried out in a 3D formulation, taking into account the nonlinear nature of the soil operation. Based on the results of the calculation, the most effective schemes for the location of reinforcement elements were determined when strengthening shallow foundations with contour reinforcement with injection bodies, and the technology for consistent reinforcement work with a gradual increase in the number of reinforcement elements was substantiated.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2022;13(4):5-16
Monitoring assessment of the low-pressure earthen dam of the Varnavinsky reservoir under conditions of an increasing risk of natural and man-made disasters
Bandurin M.A., Volosukhin V.A., Prikhodko I.A., Rudenko A.A.


The need for increased attention to the reliability and safety of hydraulic structures in the water management complex of southern Russia is determined by the scale of the socio-economic consequences of their accidents. During the long-term operation of the low-pressure earthen dam of the Varnavinsky reservoir, various hidden defects and damages were formed. Which in the future can lead to a man-made disaster. The threat of catastrophic floods with the formation of hidden defects and damage will lead to natural disasters, namely the destruction of the dam body. The identification of these hidden defects and damages is a priority task in assessing the technical condition of the body of an earthen dam. The article considers only two methods of non-destructive testing for the detection of hidden defects and damage. Methods of electrocontact dynamic sounding and seismic exploration. They make it possible to obtain the electrical resistivity of soils when subdividing a section according to a lithological feature. As a result of data processing and interpretation, the geoelectric section of the electrical resistivity of soils was obtained. Applied hardware and methodological complex allowed to solve the tasks. The advantage of the complex is its methodological mobility. After a short experimental and methodological work and express processing, it is possible to clearly orient and combine the capabilities of the instrumentation complex and the engineering-geological situation in order to obtain the maximum quality and at the lowest cost of time and money. Studies of low-pressure earth dams should be carried out in the monitoring mode at various water levels in the reservoir. As can be seen from the results of processing, the geophysical complex of non-destructive testing makes it possible to study earth dams with the determination of soil parameters. To determine the physical and mechanical properties of soils, a greater amount of work should be carried out using reference drilling wells and identifying correlation dependencies of parameters.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2022;13(4):17-29
Abdrakhimov V.Z.


The object of the study is a ceramic sample taken from the wall of a distillery built in 1896 in the village of Rozhdestveno, Samara region, with an age of more than 120 years. Studies have shown that the sample under study contains an increased amount of carbon (C = 9.48). Obviously, this is due to the fact that low-melting clay with a high organic content was used as a binder (clay raw material), or a burn-out additive was introduced into the karmic mass, for example finely ground coal (no more than 1 mm in size). The burnout additive not only increases the porosity of the products, but also promotes firing inside the material and uniform sintering of ceramics. It was found that the increased content of alkali oxides in the ceramic sample (R2O > 3.5 %) contributes to the formation of a liquid phase in the temperature range of 950-1000 oC, which flows into small pores, and thereby reduces the porosity of the product. It was revealed that three types of pores are mostly found in ceramic bricks: slit-shaped, isometric and oval-shaped pores, in the studied sample the pores are mainly oval (rounded) in shape. Integral and differential porograms of the studied samples obtained by mercury porometry showed that the total volume of micropores ranging in size from 10-4 to 10-8 m is 0.157 cm3/g. The differential distribution of micropores, depending on their size, is as follows, %: 10-4 - 10-5 m - 27; 10-5 - 10-6 m - 24; 10-6 - 10-7 m - 24; 10-7-10-8 m - 25. Dangerous pores in ceramic materials are capillary pores with a size of 10-6 - 10-7 m. The content of "dangerous" micropores in the studied sample is 24 %, and the content of such "dangerous" pores in wall ceramics is in the range of 40-60 %.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2022;13(4):30-39
Investigation of the properties of translucent concrete
Siyanov A.I., Yaroshevich D.K.


Translucent concrete is an alternative material for many building structures. Having a sufficiently high strength, it has minimal values of density, porosity and water resistance, which allows it to be used in the construction of light road surfaces. Modern technologies make it possible to improve the quality of the material and obtain inexpensive concrete with a high ability to transmit light. Promising developments are designed to improve the technical characteristics of concrete and minimize the cost of obtaining it. The aim of the work was to study concrete using affordable and relatively inexpensive plexiglass. Within the framework of the work, a method of light transmission at different angles is proposed and concrete trends are revealed depending on the content of transparent elements. The stages of obtaining samples with specified parameters are determined and the structure of their light tests is developed. The levels at which the main changes occur are shown. Based on the conducted research, the properties of concrete were identified and analyzed. The dependence between the volume distribution and the contribution of plexiglass components to the overall light effect is established. The characteristic parameters of light permeability, density and strength are determined. The practical benefit of the study lies in the fact that it takes into account the need to change the angles of light transmission in accordance with the requirements of architecture and determines the influence of plexiglass on the properties of samples. Thanks to the inclusion of a cheap transparent polymer in the composition of concrete, performance indicators were significantly increased and a material with a lower volume mass was obtained. Such concrete, subject to the correct manufacturing technology, has the prospect of mass use in construction.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2022;13(4):40-50
Experimental modeling of thermophysical processes on de-icing cornices using solar radiation energy
Myrzina S.M., Ozerova K.V., Zverev O.M., Perminov A.V.


Removing icicles from the roofs of buildings is a major problem for most cities. The paper provides an overview of a large number of patented methods and devices for combating icicles and ice on the eaves of roofs. However, there are very few really manufactured and tested products. The aim of the work was to test experimental samples of anti-icing cornices using solar radiation energy in artificially created conditions. For thermophysical experiments, more than 30 models of cornices were made from different materials with different paint coatings. During the experiments, it was found that the black color RAL 9005 has the greatest absorption capacity, and the gray graphite RAL 7074 is very close to it. The blue RAL 5005 and green RAL 6029 have a lower absorption capacity. The red RAL 3000 has a noticeably lower absorption capacity than blue and green. The least heated in the sun was the white RAL 9003 cornice model and galvanized steel. The dependence of the absorption capacity of cornices on the degree of their roughness and the method of applying the paint coating is not revealed. Due to the energy of solar radiation, anti-icing cornices can have a temperature 40-45 °C above the ambient temperature. Even in the shade, the temperature of the black cornices exceeds the ambient temperature by 4-5 °C. The wind blowing at an average speed of 2.5 m/s reduces the temperature difference between the experimental cornices and the air in the shade by about 2 times. The presence of a stretch film on the part of the cornice that will be placed under the roof allows you to reduce heat loss by one and a half to two times.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2022;13(4):51-69
Bogomolov A.N., Ofrikhter V.G., Redin A.V., Bogomolova O.A., Bogomolov S.A.


The article presents the results of the analysis of the stress state and stability of the soil slope of a complex geological structure on which the treatment facilities of an industrial enterprise are located. The calculation of stability and stress state is carried out for two variants: the natural state of the soil massif and the state determined by the design decision for its reprofiling, taking into account the device of automobile passage. The height of the slope is 12 meters, and the engineering and geological conditions are characterized by 3 category of complexity. The stability calculation is based on the analysis of the stressed state of the soil massif by the Tsvetkov-Bogomolov method, in which the finite element method is formalized, among other things, to determine stresses in inhomogeneous soil objects. The method of constructing the most probable sliding line is based on the fulfillment of the condition of minimality of the stability margin coefficient at each of its points. All calculations are performed using a computer programs developed by the authors of this article and having state registration. As a result of the study, it was found that the global stability of the slope is ensured, but the stability of the upper ledge of the slope, which is a dirt embankment, is insufficient. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out engineering measures to ensure the operational condition of the object. Taking into account the 3rd category of complexity of engineering and geological conditions and the fact that the destruction of the soil massif can lead to significant damage to the environment, it is necessary to organize constant comprehensive monitoring of the soil massif and the structures located on it. It is necessary to carry out engineering (compensating) measures to prevent the destruction of the surface layers over the entire surface area of the slope in places where plastic deformations are localized (the surfaces of both ledges). According to the results of the monitoring, it is necessary to make a decision on the need to strengthen the soil of the base of the aeration tank in the locations of areas of plastic deformations (left, right, under it) in order to avoid uneven precipitation of the base and rolls of the structure.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2022;13(4):70-85
Ushakov A.N.


The formula for normal tangential stresses for single underground workings of different cross-sectional shapes, located at a given depth, with all-round tensile uniform pressure applied at the points of the contours of the workings, is derived. As a mapping function is considered a function of complex variable, which is a polynomial of natural degree n with a pole of first order in zero, allowing the construction of various families of simple closed curves, simulating configurations of the contours of underground workings. Examples are given of contours whose cross-section has the form of a straight and inverse trapezoid, triangle, vaults with vertical and sloping walls, rhombus, rectangle, square and ellipse. Based on the method proposed by the author, the coefficients of the polynomial of the seventh degree, which performs conformal mapping of the interior of a unit circle on a plane with a trapezoidal hole of a given dimensions, are calculated. The stress state of constructed workings at the points of its contour at different depths of laying, the values of the all-round tensile uniform pressure at two fixed values of the lateral expansion coefficient of the rock is investigated. The graphical representations of the stress acting on the contour of the working in question are given. The obtained results can be used to solve problems of determining the permissible depths of mine workings and calculating the values of permissible values of uniform pressure in the points of their contours. The criterion for determining the values of these values is the condition of absence of points on the contours of workings, in which the normal tangential stresses exceeding the limits of tensile and compressive strength of the host rock.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2022;13(4):86-102
Sand modification with a saponite clay suspension as a waste of the diamond mining industry
Nevzorov A.L., Saenko Y.V., Shiranov A.M.


The results of the laboratory water permeability tests of a sand modified by a saponite clay fraction from the diamond mining industry waste are presented. The filtration of clay suspension through a landfill ground bed as a method of the additive enrichment is approved. The experimental apparatus consisted of the triaxial test chambers and semi-automatic devices for water and suspension supplying. The chambers excluded a sidewall leakage in the samples and provided required values of the vertical and horizontal stresses when measuring permeability. The samples of an alluvial fine sand and a sand mixed with 3 and 5 % a chalk and a dolomite were investigated. After preliminary saturation the rate of distilled water flow through the samples were determined at four values of hydraulic gradient. Then the filtration of a suspension containing up to 0.58-0.63 % clay particles was conducted. After that, the pore disks at the top of samples were washed by circulating water flow. At the last step of experiments the velocity of water flow was measured again at four values of hydraulic gradient. The experiments indicated that the modification of the sand by clogging the pores by the saponite clay fraction from a suspension flow is possible if a sand comprises the additives causing the aggregation of clay particles. The hydraulic conductivity of a sand with 3 % chalk decreased by 15-31 times, with 5 % - by 15-39 times at different values of relative compaction. The effect of a dolomite addition was not significant, the hydraulic conductivity decreased by a maximum of 14.3 times. To achieve the maximum depth of clogging, it is recommended to filtrate the suspension through a loose sand at a hydraulic gradient that provides a flow rate more than 3.5 m/day, after that, the sand layer should be compacted.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2022;13(4):103-115
Lomakina L.N., Sinitsin D.A., Nedoseko I.V., Rachimova O.N., Ryabykh D.M.


The problem of the beneficial use of large-tonnage industrial waste is acute all over the world. The metallurgical industry is no exception. One of the actual areas of application of such slags is the construction industry. Often, slags have many impurities that adversely affect the quality of the materials from which they can be made. However, in a small amount they can be used as pigment dyes, which make it possible to obtain materials of an unusual color. Decorative concretes differ from ordinary "gray" concretes in that they give architectural expressiveness to products, primarily for finishing works (walls, floors). The selection of the composition of such concrete requires a thorough study of both the raw materials themselves, including slags, and the selected compositions based on them. The article presents studies of finely ground slag from gas cleaning of metallurgical production, including physical and chemical methods. The analysis of the influence of the multicomponent composition of metallurgical slag on the structure and properties of the future composition of concrete is given. It was revealed that almost all components of the slag do not have a positive effect on the hydraulic or pozzolanic activity of the binder during the formation of the structure of the cement stone. More than half of the constituent minerals of the slag contains iron-containing compounds, giving the slag a rich brown color. The slag has a slight plasticizing effect. The slag particles contribute to the release of water retained by the cement particles, and, hence, to an increase in the total specific surface area of the cement particles. This structure hydrates the cement gel faster, resulting in faster hydration and strength development. Therefore, it is advisable to use the studied slag as a finely ground pigment additive in the selection of binder and concrete compositions. The finely ground structure of the slag makes it possible to improve the capillary-porous structure of concrete, reduce the consumption of cement by 5-15 %, while obtaining concrete in terms of compressive strength of a class of at least B30. The compositions of the decorative binder were selected using slag and fine-grained decorative concrete based on it for decorative flooring. The best concrete composition has strength class B40 for rooms with high impact intensity.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2022;13(4):116-125
Tatiannikov D.A.


The results of the study of the nature of the work of reinforced foundation pads from cohesive soil. Compacted soft-plastic loam is considered as the pad material, woven geotextile is used as a reinforcing element. Such a constructive solution of the foundation pad, as a rule, is associated with the impossibility or high cost of using classical inert materials for these structures. Previous studies have shown the high efficiency of the rational arrangement of reinforcing horizontal geosynthetic elements in sand pads. The main purpose of this study was to test the well-known approach to the use of variable reinforcement spacing for foundation pads made of cohesive soils. The goal was achieved by a numerical experiment (solving test problems) in the Plaxis 2D software package with various types of reinforcement, 4 types of reinforcement were considered. The main results of the research are the obtained schemes of vertical stresses, as well as the values of the maximum load that the base can withstand without destruction. Based on the results of the research, the formula for determining the position of the reinforcing layers with a variable reinforcement step in pads of cohesive soils was corrected. It was also found that when the layers are arranged in steps of 200 mm or less, the reinforcing effect in cohesive soils practically does not occur. It is confirmed that the variable reinforcement spacing allows achieving the maximum «inclusion in the work» of geosynthetics in comparison with other types of reinforcement considered in the framework of this study. In addition, it has been proven that in the study under consideration, the variable reinforcement spacing in cohesive soil pads is the most effective in terms of perceived load and the number of reinforcing layers applied.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2022;13(4):126-135

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