Construction and Geotechnics

Frequency: Quarterly

Publisher: Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation

DOI:  10.15593/2224-9826

Languages: Russian, English

Editor-in-Chief: Professor, Dr. Sci. Andrey B. Ponomaryov

Executive Editor: C.Sci. Dmitrii G. Zolotozubov

Editorial Contact:

Address: Editorial Board "Construction and Geotechnics", Russian Federation, Perm, 614990, Komsomolsky ave., 29
Phone: +7 (342) 2-198-377
E-mail: cgscimag@gmail.com 

Construction and Geotechnics  is an open-access periodical published scientific peer-reviewed journal.

Construction and Geotechnics has no article processing and/or article submission charges.

All Journal's Content, including articles,  is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0). Editorial of the Journal allows readers to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and allows readers to use them for any other lawful purpose in accordance with Budapest Open Access Initiative's definition of Open Access.

Journal intended for researchers specializing and civil engineers in the field of construction, geotechnics, building technology, structural mechanics, transport construction, environmental engineering/

Until 2012, Journal was named «Bulletin of Perm State Technical University. Construction and Architecture», since 2012 to 2019 Journal was named «Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Construction and Architecture» (ISSN 2224-9826)

 

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Current Issue

Vol 11, No 2 (2020)

INFLUENCE OF UNDERGROUND MINE PARAMETERS ON THE VALUE OF DAYLIGHT SURFACE SETTLEMENT OF UNDERMINED TERRITORY
Bogomolova O.A., Zhidelev A.V.

Abstract

The article presents the analysis results of influence of shape and dimensions of cross-section, laying depth of mine, cross-section shape and dimensions of underground mine on the daylight surface settlement of undermined territory depending on the different numerical values of the soil lateral pressure coefficient of the surrounding soil. The numerical solution was obtained in an elastic setting using the computer programs «FEA» and «Stability». In the calculations, the elastic modulus of the enclosing rocks is taken equal to the dimensionless constant E /γ H = 500 (where γ; H are the rocks volumetric weight and laying depth of mine), therefore, the numerical values of the vertical displacements gained as a result of the calculations are also dimensionless. This approach is convenient for both quantitative and qualitative analysis, because not only specific values of vertical displacements are considered, but also change patterns of their values depending on changes in the numerical values of the variables of the calculated parameters. Assuming that the displacements in the linear formulation of the problem are inversely proportional to the elastic modulus, their magnitudes can be determined for any other value of E . It was established the vertical displacements of earth’s surface points located above the mine, provided that the depth of its laying is more than 15.2 m and the dimensions of the cross section are greater than 4×4 m, significantly depend on the shape of the cross section and the lateral pressure coefficient of the surrounding rock. In addition, smaller vertical precipitation of the daylight surface corresponds to an underground mine having an exotic and «non-technological» cross section in the deltoid form. Therefore, the problem arises is to obtain such an optimal cross-sectional shape of the mine that would ensure the minimum precipitation of the earth's surface. The cross-sectional shape of the mine must be as “technological" as possible according to its advancement. The subject of further research is the solution of these problems.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(2):5-18
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THE EFFECT GRAIN-SIZE COMPOSITION ON THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SANDY SOILS
Zakharov A.V., Makhover S.E.

Abstract

Today the issue of energy saving is acute. The main sources of energy are radiant energy of the Sun, wind energy, energy of moving water. Therefore, the issue of solving alternative energy sources is relevant. The article aims to solve the problem by using low-potential heat of the soil mass by means of energy-efficient building constructions - foundations. It is necessary to know the thermal characteristics of soils for this. At the moment, methods for determining the thermophysical properties of inert materials with subsequent practical application in the field of construction have been widely studied, but no one of these methods takes into account the grain-size composition. Thus, the study of the connection between the thermal conductivity and the grain-size composition of the soil is important. The aim of the work is to Estimation of thermal conductivity of sandy soils based on grain-size composition. This article presents an analysis of the dependence of the thermal conductivity of the sandy soil of its grain-size composition. The matrix of experiment planning is made; the methodology and technological sequence of the experiment were tested. Statistical processing of the obtained experimental data was carried out. Based on a series of test experiments, it was concluded that there are two factors competing in its thermal conductivity: an increase in λ due to an increase in the degree of pore filling and a decrease in total heat conductivity due to a decrease in the degree of pore filling. These results suggest that grain-size composition has an impact on the thermal conductivity of the sandy soil. During the experiment, the dependence of the thermal conductivity of sandy soils on their grain-size composition was experimentally established.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(2):19-27
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ASSESSMENT OF FEM CALCULATION RESULTS ACCURACY WITH THE USE OF SYMMETRY PLANES IN GEOTECHNICAL PROBLEMS
Melnikov R.V., Bragar E.P.

Abstract

To calculate different geotechnical objects (foundations of unique buildings, pile foundation grillages, slab foundations, embankments, etc.) we often need to simplify geometric model. Use of symmetry principles allows to simplify the model without reducing its detail. A relevant issue with the use of symmetry planes is the assessment of calculation results accuracy. The article considers the research of such an assessment for two traditional geotechnical problems: a shallow foundation slab and a shoring of deep excavation. Calculations have been performed with various options of symmetry planes usage: a full-scale model, using one symmetry plane, using two symmetry planes; differences in the ways of representing building structures: 2D and 3D continuum elements. Generating the finite element mesh, we took into account the fact, that the degree of mesh grinding significantly influence the accuracy of the calculation results. That’s why the finite element mesh was divided into two areas: the area of «interest» represented by small sized elements, and the «peripheral» area created by larger elements. We also considered the sequence of technological processes: the initial stage of the calculation is the creation of the initial stress state, the next stage is the creation of the structure (foundation slab, shoring of excavation), the final stage is the force application. The calculation results were evaluated according to the criteria related to the second group of limit states. The controlled parameters for the shallow foundation slab were: maximum and average settlement, relative difference of settlements; for the shoring of deep excavation - the maximum displacement of the enclosure structure. It was found out that to present the construction in the form of 2D-elements it is necessary to introduce additional boundary conditions. They prevent rotation in nodes located on the plane of symmetry. The authors make conclusions and recommendations for creating design models with the use of symmetry planes.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(2):28-39
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THE ANALYTICAL DETERMINATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF THE WELL WHILE ELIMINATING UNEQUAL SETTLEMENT OF FOUNDATIONS METHOD OF DRILLING-OUT OF THE SOIL
Pronosin Y.A., Kaygorodov M.D., Karaulov A.M.

Abstract

Existing approaches which allow to reduce the settlement unevenness of buildings and structures have their own advantages and disadvantages. One of the promising methods for reducing shallow foundations the settlement unevenness, which are based on soft dust and clay soil, is the building or its part lowering. The effect is achieved by drilling vertical wellbores in the immediate proximity to the existing foundation from the side of the least settlement. At different times, domestic and foreign scientists were engaged in to the methods of horizontal and inclined drilling of wellbores, an important issue, when applying this technology, is the determination of drilling parameters, the influence of soil characteristics and the stress state of the soil around the well, on the roll reduction process. The article considers the influence of the soil strength characteristics on the stress state of the soil which are surrounding the wellbore, and the effect of the drilled wellbore radius on the formation of the critical state regions. The analytical solution is based on the use of the well-known relationship for determining the stress state around the well during pressiometric tests. From this ratio, tangential and radial stresses are determined, which are then checked according to the condition of the law of strength, thereby forming a picture of the stress state around the well. According to the presented methodology, the stress state of the soil around the wells was calculated, which allows calculating the zones of soil destruction and thereby determining the parameters of the wells and the geometry of their location depending on the goals, when regulating the sediment of slab foundations.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(2):40-48
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QUALITY ASSURANCE OF DIAPHRAGM AND PILE WALLS BY GEOPHYSICS
Churkin A.A., Lozovsky I.N.

Abstract

Underground structures like diaphragm and pile walls are constructed to organize waterproof curtains, protect pit sides, and transfer loads from the structures. Violations of the construction technological process can lead to the formation of defects. To prevent adverse consequences, before excavation, it is necessary to control the integrity of the slurry walls using non-destructive geophysical methods. A review of geophysical slurry wall quality control methods based on the excitation and registration of physical fields through access tubes installed in the reinforcement cage, in wells drilled near the structure or on the surface of the structure, is presented. The main capabilities and limitations of the methods are given. Cross-hole ultrasonic logging was used to study the section of the slurry wall during the construction of the Moscow Metro station. The results of parallel soundings made it possible to identify anomalous zones, interpreted as defects. The geometric dimensions of one of the major defects were refined by ultrasonic tomography. For the first time in Russian testing practice, thermal integrity profiling was applied to study the diaphragm wall at the base of a residential building. The results of temperature monitoring during the concrete hardening are presented. According to the method, a major flaw, excess of the design mark of the wall bottom and bulging of the structure were revealed. The results of thermal integrity profiling were verified by ultrasonic logging. The combined use of thermal and ultrasonic methods can be recommended as a reliable tool for integrity testing of diaphragm and pile walls. To carry out the measurements, the access tubes shall be included in the reinforcement cage of the structure at the design stage.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(2):49-61
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF USING INJECTION REINFORCEMENT TECHNOLOGY WITH SELF-EXPANDING GROUT OF SOFT SOILS AT THE SUB-BASE OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
Kalach F.N.

Abstract

In the process of organizing new underground volumes in difficult engineering and geological conditions of the central part of the city of St. Petersburg, it is necessary to use technologies that ensure the safety of neighboring buildings, which supply work to the zone of influence. Due to the heterogeneity of the stress-strain state of soils, the uneven loading of foundations and the additional influence of technological processes on the arrangement of underground space, the structures of existing buildings experience a significant negative effect from the unevenness of vertical deformations. At the same time, there is a need for additional research of compensatory measures that exclude this type of deformation, aimed at studying the processes of soil grouting using modern injection materials on a cement and polymer basis, increasing the physicomechanical characteristics of weak silty-clayed soils, mainly the components of the sub-base of old buildings. The article discusses the method of injection reinforcement of a shallow foundation, folded by fluid silt sandy loam, as a compensation measure, eliminating additional vertical uneven deformations of the historical building caused by the construction of the pit enclosing structure. The performed laboratory research made it possible to determine the increment in the values of the strength and deformation characteristics of the soil mass after its strengthening, the experimental work allowed us to establish the most effective injection parameters of the injection solution and visually assess the degree of its distribution in soft soil, and the physico-mathematical modeling in the PLAXIS software package made it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of this technology as a preventive measure to eliminate uneven technological deposits during the construction of the «cast-in-place trench wall» foundation pit enclosing structure.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(2):62-77
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ASSESSMENT OF RELATIVE PRESSURE IN THE SEWAGE NETWORK COLLECTOR
Ruchkinova O.I., Diakov P.P., Rossikhin V.Y.

Abstract

Sewage networks are one of the main and important urban communications. When sewage move through the collector, harmful gases are released through leaks in wells, penetrate into the residential area of the city and causes a negative impact on the human organism, and also causes chemical deformation of collector and related facilities. One of the gases is hydrogen sulfide, which belongs to the II hazard category. The object of this study is the gravity sewage pipeline of the city, located after the stilling basin, considered in the article as the most problematic, in terms of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the subroof space. The research methods used include the analysis of literature on the topic under study, experimental studies on measuring temperature, atmospheric pressure, studies of the concentration of emitted gases over time in the current collector - collected and systematized data on the constructive characteristics of the collector. Instrumental data on atmospheric air temperature and industrial emissions, atmospheric pressure and pollutant concentrations in industrial emissions of control points of sewage facilities during different seasons of the year are presented. The purpose of the article is to obtain the data necessary for calculating the natural draft depression of the air-gas mixture in the reservoir. According to the results of calculations based on the data collected during the annual period, conclusions are drawn about the absence of natural draft in the drainage collector and the need for taking measures to organize artificial ventilation of the collector, as well as calculating the depression created by the captivating ability of the fluid.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(2):78-87
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DETERMINATION OF DEFORMABILITY PARAMETERS OF CONCRETE SAMPLES BY THE FORMULAS OF FRACTURE MECHANICS
Bondarev B.A., Chernousov N.N., Sturova V.A.

Abstract

To determine the deformability parameters of concrete samples by the formulas of fracture mechanics, equilibrium tests were carried out at the stage of local deformation of the sample, which showed the correspondence of the change in external forces to the internal forces of the material resistance with the corresponding static development of the main crack. For the same purpose, the samples are tested for bending with an initial notch and the “load-deflection” diagram is recorded. In this work, we presented a test scheme for a specimen with a notch (crack) and constructed a diagram of the deformation of a specimen under bending “load-deflection”. Based on it, it is possible to predict the destruction of the material, that is, to determine the value of the load at which the limit value of deflection or the displacement of the outer edges of the notch (opening the throat of the crack on the lower surface of the specimen) can be taken as the moment of loss of the resource of the material. Also, we examined the deformation of a concrete sample during three-point bending and presented a diagram of the deformation of a concrete sample within the plastic zone. Dependencies were derived for determining the ultimate relative strains under tension and bending. Based on the results obtained, the state diagrams of the stretched concrete and the deformation scheme of the normal section of the concrete sample were constructed. As a result, the conclusion and convergence of the results.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(2):88-98
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WORLD PRACTICE IN THE FIELD OF MODULAR CONSTRUCTION
Khubaev A.O., Saakyan S.S., Makaev N.V.

Abstract

This article discusses world practice in the field of modular construction. The aim of the study is to identify possible ways of applying modular housing technology in the Russian Federation. The goal was achieved through the application of general scientific research methods within the framework of comparative, logical, statistical analysis, etc. Modular construction technologies, such as volume block construction (OBD), multilayer glued wood panels (CLT panels) and light steel ones, were examined and analyzed. thin-walled structures (LSTK). These technologies are seen as the optimal and effective direction, in connection with which the Russian Federation should consider this modern building system as one of the ways to solve the problems associated with the lack of living space. The advantages and disadvantages of modular construction technologies are generalized, an analysis of the world practice of applying this technology indicates the prospects of the direction, since these technologies can be used in almost all areas of construction where there is such a need, for the simple reason that they correspond to all those trends and trends, to which humanity aspires. Practical recommendations are proposed to improve the technical and regulatory legal framework of the Russian Federation in order to promote the sustainable development of modular construction using the volume-block method (HBS), laminated wood panels (CLT panels) and light steel thin-walled structures (LSTK). The results can be used to optimize modular construction technologies, improve them, as well as eliminate the factors that create obstacles for the end user.
Construction and Geotechnics. 2020;11(2):99-108
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