## No 34 (2020)

**Year:**2020**Articles:**13**URL:**https://ered.pstu.ru/index.php/elinf/issue/view/218**DOI:**https://doi.org/10.15593/.v0i34

Articles

DESIGN METHODOLOGY OF SAC OF INVESTIGATED PROBLEM AREA BASED ON IDENTIFICATION OF LOGICAL CONTRADICTIONS OF DESCARTES SQUARE AND STRUCTURAL SELF-ORGANIZATION

#### Abstract

The development of science and technology, globalization of the economy, integration processes in civil society call for the creation of increasingly sophisticated defense, education, production, transport, energy and other systems. In response to the requirements of development, these systems are becoming more and more complex: in the composition of which there are more and more elements, the boundaries are becoming mobile, to describe the behavior more and more difficult models for rapid perception. The application of system engineering standards makes it possible to describe the concepts and management of the activities to create systems of any scale and purpose. Hence, for display of knowledge in considered subject area (system modelling) the mathematically formalized rules intended for the description of objects (object languages) are used. Objective: to develop a conceptual approach to building the architecture of the metastructure of the software analytical complex (PAK) based on the set of real and virtual objects and their consistent and contradictory relationships determined by the semantic model (ontology) of the studied subject area according to the logic of Descartes square. Methods: the principle of logical convolution of the semantic model of the studied subject area is used, which contains the relationship of contradiction with the available syntactically defined model of the information network. Results: on the basis of the proposed methodology, the creation of a digital double for interaction with the subject area is considered. The subject area has a systemic representation based on the fundamental laws of formal logic. The possibility of building hierarchical chains of electronic administrative regulations interacting with each other that also correspond to the concept of categories is shown, that is, a certain union of regulations is a category. A measure is proposed for assessing the proximity of the model to a real object, necessary for the formation of a digital twin of the system. Practical significance: research results were used in the development of the process of providing state and municipal services to citizens of the Russian Federation in electronic form. They improve the efficiency and quality of organizational and functional process management.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(34):7-26

DEVELOPMENT OF WATER SUBMERSIBLE GYRO GENERATOR OF COMBINED EXCITATION FOR ENERGY DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM RIVERS

#### Abstract

Modern energy is developing in the direction of decreasing the share of powerful generation sources in the overall energy balance and increasing the share of distributed generation of small and medium power, in particular alternative sources. In this trend, an increase in the number of small and medium-sized hydroelectric power stations (mini-hydroelectric power stations) should be noted. This is because the energy potential of small and medium-sized rivers in Russia and neighboring countries, according to various estimates, is several times higher than that for large rivers. For the effective use of this potential, one should go not along the path of creating a number of standard mini-hydroelectric power stations, but along the path of developing design systems focused on flexible production that would produce hydrogenerators for a specific place of the river, taking into account its features in terms of the flow and relief. Purpose: development of a design system for the creation of energy-efficient mini-hydroelectric power stations based on combined excitation valve machines for flexible production. Methods: finite element method for solving electromagnetic analysis problems, three-dimensional solid-state modeling method. Results: the developed design system will allow the synthesis of optimal geometry in accordance with the technical specifications of the customer. Only part of such a study is presented in the article, in particular, a description is given of the synthesis subsystem of the combined submersible water submersible hydrogenerator. The subsystem is based on the Ansys Electronics Desktop program and allows a comprehensive analysis of the electrical machine and its control system. The efficiency of the subsystem is shown in the analysis of the combined excitation generator 3 kW, 220 V, 350 rpm. Practical relevance: the created design system allows you to design an energy-efficient mini-hydroelectric power station for any required parameters, taking into account its installation in a specific place on a small and medium river. The digital double implemented by this system largely reduces the technical risks in the production of a real sample.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(34):27-44

THE SIMULATION OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN GLOBALLY ASYNCHRONOUS LOCALLY SYNCHRONOUS SYSTEMS

#### Abstract

The specialists often faces with problem of choice between minimization of energy-consumption and reliability requirements when developing digital devices. The both energy and reliability characteristics has affect each over. Therefore, the optimization task of energy-consumption and reliability through appropriate synthesis methods appears. The asynchronous delay insensitive circuits became more popular because of development of green computing technologies. Delay insensitive circuits allow efficiently using methods of dynamic voltage and frequency scaling. However, the simulation of a delay-insensitive circuits show bad results in systems with more than 64-bit computing or in computing processors with highly parallelism. This results in applying of complex solutions such as globally asynchronous locally synchronous circuits which using most efficient methods for local computing units of a digital device. The development of completed digital device with each possible method is very difficult task, but nowadays only, it allows accurate assessment of device’s parameters. This problem is appear because of shortcomings of transistors model of modern technical processes. Purpose: The development of accurate models of energy/reliability for logic gates. Results: The simulation results of basic logic gates with different types of redundancy show that transistor level redundancy better than n-of-m redundancy in terms of energy-efficiency. The energy-efficiency of globally asynchronous locally synchronous circuits better than energy-efficiency of synchronous circuits. In conclusion, the tasks of research and development of energy/reliable methods for GALS-systems are set.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(34):45-55

CONSTRUCTION OF ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLAR MODULES TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE ENVIRONMENT

#### Abstract

The reduction of the life of solar modules during their operation occurs for various reasons, one of which is their degradation due to overheating of surfaces in operating conditions at elevated air temperatures. The standard current-voltage and power characteristics of solar modules, indicated by the manufacturer, determine the values of the main energy parameters and do not always correspond to the external conditions where this solar power plant works. In this regard, it is necessary to know how much the generation of electricity will change under real operating conditions. Purpose of research: to develop a structural scheme for calculating the energy characteristics of solar modules, taking into account external parameters that affect their effective operation. Results: to solve this goal, the basic parameters of the solar module and the environment were investigated. It has been established that the temperature coefficient of power depends on environmental conditions, the type and quality of the material of the solar modules and determines the degree of their degradation, and the correct choice of the installation location of the modules ensures the reliability and durability of their work. The volt-ampere and power characteristics of the solar module were built with a change in temperature, and they were compared with the standard characteristics of the manufacturer. It is proposed to maintain the efficiency of the solar module near the point of maximum power to use a special holographic film with the functions of protecting the surface from infrared radiation. Introduction to the structural scheme of calculating the energy parameters of the solar module of the thermal protection element will allow you to adjust the energy characteristics of the modules. Practical relevance: a compiled block diagram of calculating the energy characteristics of solar modules in real operating conditions allows you to take into account all the parameters that affect the operational parameters of the modules and determine the most optimal conditions for their operation for maximum power generation.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(34):56-74

APPLICATION OF HIERARCHIC RECOGNITION SYSTEMS IN VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

#### Abstract

CCTV (Сlosed Circuit Television) systems with recognition function have a number of disadvantages in the case of organization according to standard construction approaches. They do not allow you to create a system that simultaneously meets all the basic requirements of the customer (the highest possible image quality, coverage of a large area (a large number of cameras), high performance at a low total cost). In order to solve the above problem, it is proposed to apply a hierarchical approach, the essence of which is a sequential step-by-step refinement of the object recognition area. This is achieved through the use of the camera Internet Of Things (IoT) - Smart Camera (SC). It allows you to generate information flow only during the appearance of an object in the frame, as well as pre-process information (Region Of Interest (ROI) is detected, a image is cropped according to the contour of the object and programmatically established rules). Smart Camera is a single-board microcomputer and a video camera module. The image captured by the camera module is processed by simple algorithms to extract information important to the system. Purpose: to develop a model of a video surveillance system with a recognition function that demonstrates the advantages of a hierarchical recognition approach over the standard one. Results: a simulation model was developed, which is a program for analyzing the operation of the queuing system, based on the generation of the time of occurrence of incoming requests (stationary stochastic process) and the calculation of the time required to service each request (the model takes into account the possibility of processing several requests simultaneously). In the course of measuring indicators, the passage of five thousand applications was modeled in such a recognition system for 5 separate iterations, and the main indicators characterizing the system were calculated. Based on these data, the averaged general indicators of systems using both standard and hierarchical approaches are calculated. According to the results of modeling, it is clear that applying the hierarchical approach allows you to generate information flow only during the appearance of an object in the frame, as well as pre-process information, which significantly reduces the computational load on a server.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(34):75-89

THE ADAPTIVE AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF THE AERO ENGINE UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF LIMITED APRIORIAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE OBJECT

#### Abstract

The study is devoted to the problem of adapting of an aero gas turbine engine (ACS GTE) to the action of external and internal interference based on identification methods. The optimality of the adaptive and diagnostic functions of ACS depends on the validity of information about the current characteristics of the control object. Improving the reliability of modern digital ACS GTE is achieved through the creation of algorithmic information redundancy based on the built-in on-board mathematical model of the engine. It is proposed the design of the algorithms of the linearized adaptive on-board mathematical model of the engine (LABEM) with the function of parametric diagnostics of the gas-path. Methods: The method of the general matrix of influence coefficients (diagnostic matrix) is used, which allows to determine the deviation of unmeasured parameters using the coefficients of the influence of the efficiency of the engine nodes on its parameters depending on the operating mode. The method is based on the identification of the engine model from the results of the assessment of gas-dynamic parameters by minimizing the sum of the squares of the difference between the parameters of the mathematical model and the real engine. Based on the diagnostic results, the corrections are made to the algorithms of the mathematical model for its adaptation to changes in the control object. The study addresses the problem of ill-conditioning of diagnostic matrices. The uncertainty of the obtained systems of equations is caused by the “noise” of the model due to stochastic nature of the engine with an extended state space. Two methods of reducing the "noise" of the model are considered. The first method is based on reducing uncertain and ill-conditioned systems of equations to certain ones by choosing optimal sets of unmeasured parameters (reference plans), the number of which is chosen equal to the number of measured parameters. The second approach is based on expanding the space of engine states when a probabilistic decision is finding based on statistical modeling by using the numerical Monte Carlo methods. Results: The semi-natural experiment on an industrial electronic controller at various engine operating modes yielded unsatisfactory results. The best accuracy is achieved when evaluating the speed of the high pressure rotor, the worst - for the pressure behind the compressor. The second approach is based on statistical modeling by using the numerical Monte Carlo methods increases by 1,5-4,7 times the accuracy of identification. Discussion: The results can be used to improve the quality and reliability of fault-tolerant adaptive information systems for automatic control and diagnostics of gas turbine engines.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(34):90-113

DETECTION OF STATOR INTER-TURN SHORT CIRCUIT IN THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR USING CURRENT COORDINATE TRANSFORMATION

#### Abstract

An induction motor is the most common type of electric machine today, so the question of monitoring its condition is acute. The most common type of malfunction of an asynchronous machine is the interturn circuit of the stator winding. Existing methods for diagnosing inter-turn faults do not have the ability to diagnose equipment online and require a lot of computing power. Objective: to develop a diagnostic method for inter-turn closure of the stator winding, which would be based on less resource-intensive algorithms. Methods: the development of the method is based on the coordinate transformation of the stator current vector and further analysis of the trajectory of rotation of the Park vector in two-phase stationary coordinates. Results: the principles of developing a diagnostic system of stator windings according to the stator current values are given. A mathematical description of a squirrel-cage induction motor with a defect in the form of an inter-turn short circuit of the stator winding is given. The process was simulated in the MatLab Simulink environment using the SimPowerSystem library. A laboratory setup was also developed for the study of inter-turn short circuit of the stator winding on the basis of an asynchronous motor with shorted turns. The diagnostic method was implemented based on the analysis of the rotation path of the stator vector using the development environment in Mexbios Development Studio. The developed diagnostic system is suitable for use and has a large margin of measurement accuracy even when using inexpensive current sensors. The use of the system is not limited to a laboratory bench. This method can be used in industry with inaccessible installation of the engine (crane electric drive, air cooling systems, electric centrifugal pump units, etc.), remotely located units (in the pump of sucker rod pumps and in aquiferous plants. The main advantage of the proposed method is its simplicity at a lower processing the data array in the algorithm of the developed diagnostic system. Qualitative results to confirm the suitability of the method can be obtained by a detailed comparative analysis of various diagnostic methods for detecting interturn short circuit of a stator.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(34):114-127

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF COOLING SYSTEMS ELECTRONIC DEVICES

#### Abstract

Durability and reliability of modern electrical devices in modern conditions. This is a fairly frequent device test, which makes it possible to obtain information about the overload capabilities of devices. Devices can operate in extreme modes, both under non-standard operating conditions, and when upgrading an existing device. The object of this study is a semiconductor device with a cooling system. Semiconductor devices have a fairly large amount of heat, and the massive parameters of the semiconductor devices themselves are small enough, which makes clear the relevance of solving the problems of efficient use of elements of such devices. Purpose: definition and systematization of the working conditions of the system. The results of the study were considered taking into account existing cooling systems, which can be used as an analog. To conduct specific experiments on electromechanical components, field experiments were conducted. For this, mathematical models have been developed [1]. After interpretation, the mathematical model was implemented by its numerical implementation [2, 3, 4] (the finite measurement method and the Ansys Fluent mathematical package were chosen), processing and formalizing the results in a convenient form for applying mathematical expressions.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(34):128-144

INTERNAL-PROJECT CONTRADICTIONS AGREEMENT MECHANISMS UPON CARRYING OUT REPAIR AND REMEDIAL WORKS DRAWING UP PLANS AND THEIR COMPOSITIONS

#### Abstract

The basis for higher level ensuring of housing management efficiency transition possibility in general coordinated management of repair and restoration projects in individual residential real estate objects relation. A hypothesis is proposed about the possibility of achieving deep mutual correspondence of the many services provided and maintaining the corresponding technical condition of apartment buildings. The proposed hypothesis is based on the established paradigm of normalizing the processes of designing real estate objects, which guarantees the provision of services to owners based on the achieved set values of the parameters of structural elements characterizing the level of technical condition of the building subsystems. The study aims to develop and systematize mechanisms for reconciling intra-project conflicts in the preparation of plans for the repair of housing stock. Methods: set-theoretic modeling, formal generative grammars, discrete optimization, and complex estimation mechanisms. Results: a tool is proposed for diagnosing the reasons for not providing the provided user services or the consequences of technological and operational processes, which is based on the construction of a set-theoretic model for matching the sets of services and technical parameters of apartment buildings. The functional completeness of the system of coordination mechanisms is ensured, which ensures balance in the class of complex organizational systems under consideration. The task of coordinating the composition of plans for the implementation of housing repairs has been posed and solved. Practical relevance: a digitalization option is proposed for the process of project management of repair and restoration work based on automated systems and mechanisms for coordinating plans. The proposed tool is built using formal generating grammars of type 2, effective procedures for measuring and predicting the parameters of technical subsystems and performing repair and restoration work and can provide high project management efficiency. Harmonization of project groups provides significant resource savings.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(34):145-167

DESIGN OF A SELF-TIMED LOGIC FUNCTIONS GENERATOR

#### Abstract

Currently, despite some difficulties, the self-timed technique and the corresponding field of science proposed by D. Muller at the end of the 50s of the XX century continue to develop actively. In the A. Kamensky thesis a significant step was taken towards the fault tolerance of self-timed circuits (2017). However, the synthesis of self-timed universal logic modules has not yet been fully considered. Purpose: development of strictly self-timed generators of logical functions for one, two and three variables. Methods: Self-timed circuitry, synthesis of a self-synchronous multiplexer for two, four and eight channels using EDA for IC Kovcheg. Results: The study synthesized strictly self-timed logic function generators using 2AND-2OR-NOT elements, transition completion indicators, and hysteresis triggers. The proposed elements are almost equivalent to the LUT FPGA gates, however, they are built according to CMOS technology and implement self- timed operation, which allows them to be used in self- timed s base matrix crystals with either constants or additional memory cells configured. The simulation was performed in the EDA for IC Kovcheg system and in the NI Multisim circuit simulation system of the National Instruments Electronics Workbench Group firm and in the Microwind topological modeling system, which confirmed the operability of the proposed elements. Practical relevance: the developed elements can be used as additional universal blocks in the library of self-timed circuitry developed at the IPI RAS for basic matrix crystals produced at the MIET Technological Center.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(34):168-185

THE SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR STATIC MODELS CONSTRUCTION BY EXPERIMENTAL DATA

#### Abstract

The construction of mathematical models of a synchronous generator autonomously operating for an active inductive load is considered an important step to ensure the required indicators of the quality of electricity. The purpose of the research is to create a synchronous generator model that takes into account the internal cross-connections between its variables as part of a more general mathematical model with the prospect of further designing a synchronous generator automatic control system that maintains a given voltage and regulates the generator power when working with the power grid. The problem is solved by identifying the model using experimental data obtained in two ways: on a laboratory setup and on a mathematical model built on the basis of taking into account the physics of processes in a synchronous generator. Results: a new model is being built in order to maintain the computational speed while maintaining the specified accuracy, and also to analyze the internal relationships between the variables in the simulated system. The structure of the equations is chosen in the course of research. The model is built taking into account a priori information. Experimental data are generated when the excitation winding voltage and the generator speed are changed and are used to further evaluate the adequacy of the obtained models. A comparative analysis of the results obtained by calculation and experimental ways on 6 MW and 370 W synchronous generator is carried out. The hypothesis is verified that the static values obtained from the models of a synchronous generator of different powers, taking into account the physics of the process, in relative units should be close. The reported study was funded by RFBR, project number 19-48-590012.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(34):186-197

DISCRETE OPTIMAL CONTROL OF BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE TANK

#### Abstract

The increase in anthropogenic load on natural water sources necessitates increasing the efficiency of wastewater treatment. The required number of natural experiments performance is excessively labor-intensive and can negatively affect the environment. Mathematical modeling is one main element in the biological wastewater treatment process study. A treatment plants technologist can provide constant values of the feed rates of activated sludge and wastewater during the day. This possibility is adequate for treatment plants that have the system of balancing tanks. Purpose: The development of a method for finding discrete optimal control and modification of the biological wastewater treatment process compartmental mathematical model. Results: I develop the modification of compartmental mathematical model with a variable structure for wastewater biological treatment process. Modifications appeared in the differential equations of the activated sludge microorganisms total concentration dynamics and oxygen concentration dynamics. The oxygen supply volumetric rate equation is in the model now. The discrete optimal control task is minimizing the biological wastewater treatment process costs while maintaining the output model concentrations of pollutants within acceptable limits. I propose the method for finding optimal control and develop the software package for numerical modeling in Python. The method consists in choosing the number of blowers turned on and the number of activated sludge pumps turned on. The computer modeling results and the model concentrations output values show the adequacy of the developed model to the process of biological wastewater treatment. There is the example of calculating of optimal control by experimental data obtained at the wastewater treatment plant in Petrozavodsk in the article. Practical relevance: The proposed mathematical model modification and the method for finding control allow to solve the forecasting and optimal control task for the biological wastewater treatment process.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(34):198-216

NEURAL NETWORK MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT DIFFERENT MODES OF ITS OPERATION

#### Abstract

Introduction: the model-oriented approach is well established in the tasks of designing, optimizing, and configuring complex technological systems. Using mathematical models at the early stages of testing can significantly speed up and simplify the testing procedure for such objects. It should be noted that any mathematical model is always developed to solve a specific problem. For example, to synthesize, configure, or optimize a control system for a complex technological object, you need a model whose performance allows you to conduct a significant number of experiments on it. At the same time, the adequacy of such a model should be evaluated through the possibility of solving the task. In most cases, this speed is achieved by simplifying the model by discarding factors that are considered insignificant in solving the problem of testing the control system. In our work, we have chosen an approach using artificial neural networks, on the basis of which, during the training algorithm based on experimental data, we obtain neural network mathematical models. Purpose: obtaining a multi-mode neural network mathematical model of a gas turbine power plant. Methods: using the theory of artificial networks to obtain a simplified mathematical model of a gas turbine power plant. Results: on the basis of representative experimental data of the electric power system power surge and discharge, a model of a gas turbine power plant is obtained, taking into account these two modes, the speed and adequacy of which is sufficient for testing the control system on it. Practical relevance: using a mathematical model of a gas turbine power plant for testing control systems allows you to significantly reduce the test procedure, which leads to significant savings in money, material and human resources.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2020;(34):217-233