## Vol 15, No 20 (2016)

ARTICLES
THE LITHOLOGICAL-PETROGRAPHY CHARACTERISTICS OF CHALK, PALEOGEN-MIOCENE DEPOSITS OF YALAMA-KHUDAT AREAS AND SIYAZAN MONOCLINE ANTICLINE IN CONNECTION WITH THEIR OIL AND GAS CONTENT (SOUTH-EAST IMMERSIONS OF MEGAANTICLINORIC OF GREATER CAUCASUS)
Gurbanov V.S., Narimanov N.R., Sultanov L.A., Abbasova G.G., Ibragimli M.S.

#### Abstract

In recent years, geological prospecting and geophysical works in Azerbaijan were carried out in considerable volume in order to study an oil and gas potential of Meso-Cenozoic deposits. Based on the results of these studies the criteria were developed as the basis for further research. It is known that the sedimentation basin mainly dipped in the Meso-Cenozoic time. As a result, the researchers have no doubt about the potential of these deposits in the central part of the studied area and at greater depths, but there have been no precise calculations yet. In order to solve this problem, we have studied the reservoir rocks properties of considered ages of Khudat, Yalama oil and gas bearing structures and Siyazan monocline formed in Gusar-Davachi superimposed mulde in various geological conditions and at different depths. For an easier analysis, all the actual data are given in tables showing the physical parameters of the different rock types, involved in geological structure of oil and gas bearing areas. In order to clarify the obtained results and the changes nature study of the considered physical properties the various petrophysical methods were applied. As a result the regularity in changing of rocks density, carbonate contents, porosity, permeability and the propagation velocity of ultrasonic waves in them were established. However, in tectonically complex structures of the Siyazan monocline the applied methods have not given expected results of studies because of their severe dislocation and outlet to the surface. Taking this into account the reservoir characteristics studies of rock samples of considered ages from fields being developed in the north-eastern slope of the south-east Greater Caucasus dipping were conducted. The main objective is to study the petrophysical parameters and reservoir rocks properties of the Cretaceous, Paleogene-Miocene age in tectonically complex uplifts of Yalama, Khudat and Siyazan monocline placed at southeast Greater Caucasus dipping due to its petroleum potential.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2016;15(20):204-215
LITHOGENESIS ROLE IN FORMATION OF ZONES WITH IMPROVED RESERVOIR PROPERTIES OF SUBSALT CARBONATE SEDIMENTS OF VENDA AND LOWER CAMBRIAN (EASTERN SIBERIA)
Kaiachev N.F., Kolesov V.A., Kvachko S.K., Musin R.A.

#### Abstract

The object of research is pre-salt deposits of carbonate complexes from Vendian and Lower Cambrian Nepa-Botuobiya anteclise (NBA), located in the central part of the Siberian platform, administratively dedicated to the Irkutsk region. The problems of fluid dynamics within the basement ledges are considered. Their role in the high productivity of overlying carbonate deposits is assessed. Reconstruction of sedimentation conditions and subsequent diagenesis and katagenesis of Nepa formation sediments is made that have the greatest impact on morphostructure of the sedimentary cover. Cuts of Vendian-Cambrian sediments before and after diagenesis and katagenesis are given. Detailed construction helped to establish antiform structure of the sedimentary cover deposition over the basement ledges, allowing visually see in retrospect a sediments restructuring and its influence on the formation of hydrocarbon traps. The information on the rising pore pressure within the ledges is provided, due to which there is a subvertical fluid migration through both sulfate-carbonate rocks and interformational mudstones which to the beginning of elysion processes in Nepa formation were also unlithified porous sediments. It is suggested that the most permeable zones in the sulfate-carbonate rocks were formed over the edge portions of the projections as the most deformed during compaction of sand and clay deposits Nepa formation and restructuring of the upper section of the sedimentary cover. It is suggested that the elysion stage of sedimentary basin development within ledges and arched structure of Vendian-Cambrian deposits leads to dissolution and mobilization by aqueous solutions of the sedimentary rocks substance at depth and their migration mostly up. The results outlined in this paper are supported by the core data analysis.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2016;15(20):216-231
FEATURES OF SINGLE AND MULTICOMPONENT GAS HYDRATES FORMATION
Zaporozhets E.P., Shostak N.A.

#### Abstract

Natural hydrates are a form of the gas existence in depths and a promising source of hydrocarbon gas. Manmade hydrates in bottom-hole zones and wellbores complicate hydrocarbon production, reducing production rates. In oil and gas collection systems hydrates are deposited under certain conditions of temperature and pressure on the walls of the pipes and increase its hydraulic resistance, thereby increasing energy consumption. The presence of hydrates in streams of producing fluid increases the wear of prefabricated collectors, reducing their life. In hydrocarbon field preparations systems (heat exchange equipment, separators, throttle devices, ejectors) hydrate deposition degrades technological processes. Hydrate formation in machinery and equipment (compressor, expander) collection and treatment systems lead to accidents. In gas pipeline transport the hydrate deposition reduces its effectiveness. To solve problems associated with technogenic hydrates and gas production from natural hydrates, it is necessary to know the basic features of their formation. The article contains modern concepts of single- and multi-component gashydrates formation (natural and oil), which occur in natural and technical systems. Authors hope that the paper will be useful to a wide range of readers, especially students and staff of higher education institutions of oil and gas profile, as well as professionals, industrial activity of whom is connected with production, collection, preparation and transportation of natural and oil gases. Based on the systematization and analysis of more than a thousand experimental research and practical applications in this area over the period since 1780 to the present time, the authors have identified some features of the hydrate formation from single or multi-component gases.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2016;15(20):232-239
FEATURES OF STUDY COMPLEX CARBONATE RESERVOIR ROCKS WETTING USING LABORATORY METHODS
Gurbatova I.P., Melekhin S.V., Chizhov D.B., Fairuzova I.V.

#### Abstract

Surface properties of rocks are the important parameter and have a great influence on the process of oil displacement by water. In real systems the wettability can range from highly hydrophilic to strongly hydrophobic depending on interaction between mineralized water and oil with rock surfaces. If the preferential wettability of any of two liquids is not observed in the rock, then the system has a neutral wetting. Some components of oil can wet the selected areas of porous surface around the reservoir. Under election wettability a spotted heterogeneous wettability of rock surface is understood. Wetting characteristic is a necessary criterion for evaluating the reservoir. There are qualitative and quantitative methods for estimating the wettability, which are divided into direct and indirect. Paper presents results of the study the surface properties of carbonate deposits, characterized by a complex structure of the hollow space and the complex composition of the mineral skeleton. Determination of wettability was carried out by two methods: according to industrial standard and Amott method. Characteristics of the rocks surface properties of different lithological types were established. To study the influence of extraction on the surface properties the wettability index was measured twice: in samples with natural oil saturation and in extracted samples. The regularities of changes in the surface properties along the well section of carbonate deposits were determined, a comparison of the wettability index and reservoir rock properties, as well as the residual water was performed by capillary pressure method. The descriptiveness analysis of various methods for determining the wettability was conducted and difference causes in the results of research were determind by methods of industrial standard and Amott. The presence of deposits, characterized by selective wetting was found.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2016;15(20):240-245
STUDY OF GEOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL MODEL OF COMPLEX RESERVOIRS OF SAMOTLOR FIELD OIL AND GAS DEPOSITS
Chusovitin A.A., Timchuk A.S., Grachev S.I.

#### Abstract

The achievement of project indicators of complex reservoirs development through integrated management of oil and gas reserves recovery requires the use of models that adequately reflect the geological structure of the medium, which determines the filtration flows direction during waterflooding. Their reliability increases based on the analysis of lithofacies features of productive part of the cut and enclosing sediments formation, reservoir features prediction in the inter-well space. It is known that the heterogeneity of macro level (sand content, segmentation) plays a crucial role in the formation of primary directions of reservoir fluids filtration flows. Microinhomogeneity (anisotropy, lateral variability in the permeability) has an impact on the nature of mass transfer processes, the target fluids displacement indicators and the phase permeability changing. Analyzing the the productive section of the AV11-2 reservoir, which is the most lithologically volatile in the Samotlor field, a special attention was given to textural characteristics (monolithicity and segmentation) of collectors. As a result, based on the ratio of two basic parameters Hef и αps, formation reservoirs were classified into three main classes: with massive texture, with thin-layered structure and with mixed texture. As a result of detailed studies of the geological and physical characteristics features of structure and, taking into account the results of facies analysis for each of layers, criteria referring to a particular type were formed. It was found that the productive strata gof the roup AB are characterized by a very complex facies formation environment, which occurred mainly in the coastal-marine conditions, in the areas of semi-enclosed sea gulfs and lagoons, deltaic subtraction of paleorivers. This affected both the nature of the various deposits types distribution and their structure, and resulted in a significant heterogeneity of reservoir properties. The research results allowed to allocate within the considered layers zones with different facies. It was found that the most effective barrier waterflooding is in the avandelta area. The influence of reservoir facies affiliation on the effectiveness of the barrier flooding associated with distribution characteristics of interlayers with different permeability and of reservoir segmentation degree was explained. The recommendations for optimizing the barrier waterflooding techniques depending on the facial characteristics of the area were developed.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2016;15(20):246-260
ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF SURVEYING AND GEODETIC OBSERVATIONS ON GEODYNAMIC TESTING GROUND SOUTH-PETIEGSKOIE FIELD
Vasilev I.V.

#### Abstract

Research and practical experience of operating oil and gas fields shows that the production of hydrocarbons produces a powerful anthropogenic impact on the geological environment, which leads to disruption of the stress-strain state of the fields subsurface array. It is not seldom accompanied by well accidents, cross-flows, aquifers pollution, can create conditions for settling the Earth's surface to a subsequent breach of stability and operational reliability of the oil and gas technological arrangement. In order to ensure industrial safety of oil and gas facilities in the South Petiegskoie field a geodynamic testing ground was created for a long-term surveying and geodetic observations and multiple repeated observations of contemporary deformation processes. The results of the third cycle of high-precision geodetic measurements obtained by geometric leveling of the class II, for the period 2014-2016 years, revealed that a greater number of observation points of the geodynamic testing ground heights gained significant negative values. This indicates a stable process of Earth's surface subsidence over the undermined territories mainly in the western part of the field, in the zone of maximum fluid and oil production. A geodynamic risk zone was revealed in the region of the well pad №1. Analysis and interpretation of geodynamic monitoring results (leveling of the class II, satellite observations, high-precision gravimetry), operating field development parameters (anthropogenic impact) and specificity of the natural geological and tectonic conditions allowed to determine that the condition for the formation of vertical and horizontal ground deformation was natural and man-made factor. The correlation between the formation of the Earth's surface subsidences trough and density characteristics dynamics, accumulated oil production, reservoir pressures falling was revealed. Recommendations for the further conducting of geodynamic monitoring of the South Petiegskoie oil field were given.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2016;15(20):261-269
NATURAL STUDY OF MARGINAL ARRAY ROCKS STRESS STATE
Asanov V.A., Toksarov V.N., Evseev A.V., Beltiukov N.L.

#### Abstract

Safety working out water-soluble ore fields in many ways depends on the stability of chamber development systems elements. To monitor the interchamber pillars status a method of experimental and theoretical evaluation of the geomechanical processes taking place in the array was developed, the essence of which lies in the meaningful results interpretation of mechanical characteristics and the stress state experimental studies of load-carrying structures by mathematical modeling methods. The article describes the method of estimating the marginal rock arrays stress state. The tension control was made using an acoustic memory effect. The measurements were performed in the wells with the help of a Goodman hydraulic jack. Its feature is the ability to create a load on the borehole array in the same plane, that allows to evaluate the stress magnitude in various directions. During the loading of the measuring borehole walls there is a discontinuous increase in the activity of acoustic emission. The pressure, which is logged in the hydraulic system, was taken at the level of the natural stresses acting in the marginal array. As a result of complex laboratory and field studies methodological features of stress analysis were identified using memory effects in salt rocks of the Verkhnekamskoye potash salt deposit. The experimental data analysis showed that in the “fresh” interchamber pillars a bearing pressure maximum is located near the contour of exposure and in 1.8-2.0 times higher than the load of of the overlying rocks weight (g H ). In the central part of the pillar the vertical stress level is 1.25-1.4 g H . With the increase in pillars service life the marginal arrays stresses magnitude declines to the stress level of the overlying rocks weight. The horizontal stress increases with moving from the pillar contour and are approximately 60-70% of the vertical. These instrumental measurements results are a source data for assessing the long-term sustainability of interchamber pillars in sylvinite layers mining.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2016;15(20):270-276
COMPUTER MODELING AND INVESTIGATION OF DYNAMICS OF SYSTEM “VESSEL-REINFORCEMENT” IN SHAFTS WITH BROKEN GEOMETRY
Samusia V.I., Iliina I.S., Iliina S.S.

#### Abstract

The article describes results of mathematical modeling and analysis of instrumental measurements of the dynamic interaction between lifting vessels and reinforcement of mine shafts. Based on the analysis of instrumental measurements data of contact loads between the protective runner and the guides shown that the process of long-term operation of the dynamic interaction of vessel with guides becomes substantially uniform in the shafts depth. There are sites with different parameters of guides profiles curvature, varying degrees of wear of guides and buntons. The specified factors lead to the fact that during movement the vessel experiences dynamic indignations, various on level and character, from guides. And vessel creates reciprocal dynamic loads on reinforcement, various on level. It is shown that constant-sign deviation from vertical of guides on long sections of shafts during the motion of the vessel at operating speeds result in a one-sided pressing of working faces of the runner to the guides and the excitation of shock interaction with steps at the junctions of guides, which can not be prevented by the elasticity of the roller directors. Finite element models of the dynamic interaction of vessel with a reinforcement are developed. They take into account the lifting vessels inertia parameters, shifting the mass center of cargo in the vessel, actual spatial profiles of the guides, the support rigidity and wear of the reinforcement with guides, charts hoist speed, cinematic gaps in pairs of “runner - guide”. Researches of spectral characteristics of revolting impacts on lifting vessel from guides profiles according to the actual surveying measurements of their deviations from a vertical in the operating shafts are executed. It is shown that the shafts sections, where the frequency of the external perturbation by reinforcement are close to the natural frequency of the vessel with the elastic roller directors, in the “vessel - reinforcement” systems appears an effect of resonant excitation of horizontal fluctuations in angular and translational degrees of freedom with a high level of contact loads on the reinforcement. The dependences of the contact loads level on reinforcement from magnitude of cargo mass center displacement in the vessel are received.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2016;15(20):277-285
SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF QUASIOPTIMAL QUICK ACTING MOVEMENT CONTROL OF LIFTING CRANES WITH A LOAD ON FLEXIBLE SUSPENSION
Loveikin V.S., Romasevich I.A.

#### Abstract

The subject of research is an influence pattern of quasioptimal quick acting movement control of lifting cranes with a load flexible suspension on dynamic movement characteristics. The purpose of the work lies in the synthesis of quasioptimal crane movement control when its accelerating with the elimination of load fluctuations, as well as in the study of the crane movement dynamics at the quasioptimal control. The paper proposed to switch from an optimal control of crane movements to control, which is described by a continuous function. In order to achieve specified final conditions of movement by the system “crane-load” an algebraic system of transcendental equations was composed, which was leaded to the target of minimizing the complex function of three arguments. By using the particle swarm method points in time were found at which there was a change in the control character (the driving force of the crane actuator). Simulation of crane movements at quasioptimal control made it possible to find its basic dynamic characteristics during acceleration. Comparative analysis of the data showed a significant reduction of dynamic loads in the crane elements. The transitional regime duration of the crane movement in comparison with the optimal control increases slightly. Thus, by increasing the duration of the cranes non-essential movement cycle (for tens of seconds) an increase in the durability of the crane steel structures, mechanical gears, motor, power inverter, and other elements is achieved. The obtained results should be used for the development and modernization of movement control systems for lifting equipment, which require a significant productivity, energy efficiency and durability (for example, cranes that are extensively exploited in ports, metallurgical and machine-building enterprises, construction sites, warehouses).

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2016;15(20):286-292
METHOD OF THE SEPARATE VENTILATION OF OIL MINES GRADIENT EXCAVATIONS AND UNDERGROUND MINE DRIFTS
Nikolaev A.V.

#### Abstract

On the Yarega field (LUKOIL-Komi LLC) a thermal mining oil development is applied. With such method, there is a considerable heat release in oil mines’ working areas (in drilling galleries of the gradient excavations). Increasing temperature causes deterioration of hygiene and reduces miners’ productivity. Activities and ways proposed and currently used to reduce the air temperature in gradient excavations require significant financial expenses for implementation - for refrigeration equipment and air heater installations of ventilation boreholes, well excavation itself, as well as for the process of the air treatment - expenses of electricity for air conditioning (cooling) and energy resources (mainly natural gas) for heating the air supplied to wells during the cold season. This paper proposes a method of gradient excavations ventilation, which allows the use of a natural draft`s positive effect (thermal depression) arising between underground mine workings due to the temperature difference (density, specific gravity) of air in them. The proposed method will reduce the cost of electricity for ventilation, as well as decrease the temperature in oil mine’s underground mine drifts. Furthermore, the proposed method does not require equipping the ventilation hole with heating system and air conditioning, which would also contribute to the energy and resource savings. In addition, natural draft will occur between the trunks of oil mines. Calculations show that it will have a positive value, that is, will facilitate ventilation. Controlling the performance and pressure developed by the main ventilation unit taking into account the action of natural draft would also reduce the electrical energy consumption for airing.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2016;15(20):293-300