## No 29 (2019)

**Year:**2019**Articles:**13**URL:**https://ered.pstu.ru/index.php/elinf/issue/view/223**DOI:**https://doi.org/10.15593/.v0i29

Articles

VALUE ENGINEERING ANALYSIS IMPLEMENTED TO THE CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEM SOFTWARE OF AN OFFICE BUILDING

#### Abstract

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are widely used due to the “Industry 4.0” concept development within which digital enterprise transformation and the use of new management techniques based on the Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data analytics assume primary importance. In general, CPS is a class of information systems whose computational elements are integrated into physical processes and objects; such systems can interact with each other using Internet protocols. The growing number of situations requiring CPS implementation determines the necessity of CPS design that takes into account the specific factors of a subject area. The CPS structure includes hardware and software which in many ways affect the security and cost of a technical solution, the convenience of user interaction with the system. A significant CPS programs feature is ensuring long-term performance and high sustainability which is largely complicated by the lack of unified solutions (templates) for CPS software design. This obstacle affects the realization of other software requirements as well. The purpose of the study is to identify ways to optimize the cost/quality ratio of the CPS software being designed that uses the technologies of the Internet of Things and present findings in the form of recommendations suitable for further use. One of the methods that realize complex organizational and technical solutions evaluation is Value Engineering (VE). CPS software functions have been identified and the anticipated system software structure has been determined. The results of applying the VE method to CPS software have been reflected and the conclusions considering the practical significance of the study have been drawn. The analysis has been carried out within the priority area of scientific development established in the National research university Higher school of economics (Perm) - “Research on control methods in cyber-physical systems”.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(29):7-31

CONSTRUCTION AND INVESTIGATION OF DISCRETE DYNAMIC NEIGHBORHOOD MODELS IN MATHCAD

#### Abstract

Discrete models are widely used in the modern world. There are many complex spatially distributed objects and systems, such as transport systems, steelmaking, the wear process of structural elements of bridge structures, cement production, the process of wastewater treatment, and many others. Neighborhood models are used to simulate complex production systems, as well as to manage them. It is the neighborhood models that generalize many discrete systems. In the paper, two simplest classes of neighborhood models are considered, such as linear and bilinear dynamic discrete neighborhood models, which in this paper are presented in a matrix form. The main difference between linear and bilinear dynamic discrete neighborhood models is also shown; explains the discreteness of the neighborhood models. Definitions of such concepts as block multiplication, parametric identification and stability of neighborhood models are given. Parametric identification of the considered dynamic discrete neighborhood models is carried out, formulas for an overdetermined system of linear algebraic equations for performing parametric identification of neighborhood systems are given. The characteristic equation of dynamical discrete neighborhood models is considered in which the eigenvalues necessary for determining stability are found. The stability condition for discrete dynamical neighborhood models is described by the Lyapunov criterion. Based on the results of the stability and adequacy of the neighborhood model of the production spatially-distributed system, one can judge the possibility of using this model for forecasting its states. A program was developed for constructing and investigating discrete dynamic neighborhood models for stability by the Lyapunov criterion. This program was implemented in the programming block of the mathematical package Mathcad. A block diagram of the program algorithm is presented, which shows the sequence of operations for parametric identification and study of linear and bilinear discrete neighborhood models for stability by the Lyapunov criterion. The main steps and commands in the Mathcad environment that were used during the writing of the program code are described in detail.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(29):32-43

HIERARCHICAL BARCODE DETECTION AND RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR DAMAGED CONTAINERS IN REVERSE VENDING MACHINES

#### Abstract

In this article, the authors propose a solution to the problem of upgrading the machine for receiving containers. This is caused by the need to increase the competitiveness of the proposed design. A solution is based on a hierarchical automatic recognition of a bar code on the side surface of the container. For its implementation, algorithms for reading and restoring bar codes are considered. Both the usual barcode recognition method and its modification using a neural network are proposed for barcode detection. The task of the modified method is to pre-mark the image and further comparison of the plots to their possible values. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are considered. To restore the information of damaged barcodes, three methods were proposed - “recovery by redundancy”, “recovery by guessing an element by the majority system” and “recovery by analytic calculation of the checksum”. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are considered. The described methods are structured into a single hierarchical bar code recognition algorithm. The resulting algorithm is relevant for the conditions of limited computing power of the microcontroller used in the machine. It allows you to avoid a large number of operations on the recognition of a bar code, if the barcode search mode were used in real time, replacing them with single calls of simple algorithms. There is a saving of memory resources, because the most resource-intensive part (bar code recognition) is performed not over a large complex image of the side surface of the container, but over its individual fragments. The latter fact also has a positive effect on the efficiency and recognition time.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(29):44-57

DEVELOPMENT OF ENGINEERING METHODS OF CALCULATION MAGNETIC SYSTEMS WITH PERMANENT MAGNETS ON THE BASIS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

#### Abstract

Intensive development of systems with permanent magnets requires improvement of their calculation methods. At present, it is impossible to create Electromechanical devices with high mass-energy indicators without accurate methods of field calculation and optimization calculations. Thus there is the following technical contradiction. Accurate electromagnetic calculations require significant computational resources and the use of complex programs such as Ansys, Cosmos, and optimization methods require a large number of calculation cycles when choosing the best parameters. It is not possible to include heavy-weight programs in optimization cycles, despite their accuracy, because of the unacceptable calculation time.This contradiction can be solved in only one case: it is necessary to create a simple but accurate model for the calculation of the magnetic system, which could be used for optimization. The article offers a solution to this problem. A technique based on the finite element method is proposed, but a pre-selected limited number of elements providing the required accuracy is used to implement this method. This is a new approach to solving such problems.Thus, the method is simple in terms of implementation, but acceptable in terms of accuracy of calculation of the basic electromagnetic parameters. It has been tested for optimization models with a large number of cycles in the design of permanent magnet systems and has shown very good results in counting time and accuracy. The method used in the design of magnetic systems of generators of wind power installations, gate motors, shutoff devices, generators for diesel-electric installations of uninterruptible power supplies This approach can be recommended for solving other similar problems: thermal, ventilation, hydraulic, dynamics of stress.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(29):58-74

CALCULATION OF TRACTION FORCE OF A CYLINDRICAL LINEAR ASYNCHRONOUS ENGINE FOR DRIVING A PLUNGER PUMP

#### Abstract

The use of cylindrical linear asynchronous engines is currently very popular. They are used in plunger-type submersible pumps. The installation of sucker rod pumps involves significant operating costs. It turns out to be economically unprofitable at a flow rate of less than 10 m3 / day, therefore, the operation of such wells ceases. Today in Russia, a significant portion of wells remain abandoned due to low production rates. Installation of sucker rod pumps also have additional problems: wear of pump and compressor pipes and rods, large weight and dimensions of pumping units, which impede their transportation. These drawbacks cause the search for technical solutions. One of such solutions is the use of plunger-type deep-well pumping units with a drive based on a cylindrical linear asynchronous engine. To use this type of engine, it is necessary to know its tractive effort, the calculation of which is shown in this article. It is implemented according to the formula derived for a simplified design model of a cylindrical linear asynchronous engine in Cartesian coordinate system. The presented model was obtained by introducing some assumptions. The article also presents the structure and principle of operation of a cylindrical linear asynchronous engine. According to the calculated data, the dependencies of the tractive effort, useful power and speed of movement of the secondary element from sliding were built. Characteristics were obtained at the thickness of the copper coating of the secondary element 0.5 mm, 0.75 mm and 1 mm and the frequency of the supply network 50 Hz. The obtained research results were analyzed, and recommendations were made on the use of a cylindrical linear asynchronous engine with the specified initial data.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(29):75-91

AUTOMATION OF THE COOLING TOWERS INSTALLATION OF WATER RECYCLING BOV-6 LLC “LUKOIL-PERMNEFTEORGSINTEZ”

#### Abstract

There is a question of cooling liquids that are used in the production or obtained as a result of the work of other plants in any industrial enterprise. To solve this problem, there are special air coolers -cooling towers. Cooling towers are mainly used in water recycling systems for cooling heat exchangers at present. The analysis of the current state of the PCS of the circulating water cooling system at BOV-6 is performed in this work. PCS has been modernized according to the results of the analysis. Thefollowing tasks performed with the help of PLC Allen-Brabley CompactLogix: - algorithms of automatic start-up of fan electric motors in the cooling tower were developed depending on their operating time and on the temperature in the cooled water collector KOV-1; - algorithms for controlling pneumatic cut-offs on the water supply pipelines to each section of the cooling tower were developed with the possibility of controlling them from the HMI screen; - algorithms for controlling the electric valves on the water supply pipes from the sections to the chilled water collector were developed which are controlled from the mnemonic scheme; - the algorithm of regulation of two valves on the feed line with the BHO and Kama was developed with the aim to minimize the financial costs of water consumption; - HMI screen of process control of BOV-6 was developed. The algorithm of automatic start-up and stop of cooling towers taking into account operating-out of the equipment, the algorithm of maintenance of level in the reservoir of the cooled water is developed and realized. The necessary HMI screen of process control of BOV-6 was developed. Algorithms, programs and mnemonic schemes are prepared for implementation at the actual operating facility BOV-6 and will reduce the load on the operator by automating some of its functions, such as maintaining the temperature and level in KOV-1, as well as automatically activating the sections of the cooling tower. At the same time, the dynamic equipment of the cooling tower will be evenly worn out.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(29):92-103

THE MODEL FOR DETECTING COMPUTER ATTACKS ON OBJECTS OF CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE

#### Abstract

In this paper was made a brief problem analysis of computer attacks as the most dangerous form of exposure to objects of critical information infrastructure. Features of traditional computer attacks were noted. The characteristic of targeted computer attack was given and its features were considered. The trends to an increase in threats of this type were given. The necessity of improving intrusion detection systems and detecting computer attacks has been substantiated. The task of detecting attacks at the rule level was presented. The problems of the classical approach were formulated while forming the rules. An approach for solving the problem of intrusion detection, based on machine learning, has a list of advantages and disadvantages. Requirements were formulated to eliminate possible deficiencies in the recognition of a computer attack. A diagram of the laboratory setup network used to record the analyzed traffic was presented with the subsequent signs identification of a computer attack. The advantages of the selected model were formulated. Graphs illustrating the asymptotic complexity of approaches to traffic classification, predicate partitioning by the Gini index were constructed. An example was given of the vertex of the decision tree used in the ensemble, as well as the first five levels of the decision tree. The quality metric of the resulting model was formulated. The model was evaluated by cross-validation on five samples and its accuracy was estimated. During the experiments on the developed model an error matrix was constructed. The results were analyzed and the necessary conclusions were drawn about the sufficient effectiveness of the developed model. A ranked list of parameters that the model deemed important for decision making was given. The evaluation of the work of the constructed model, in terms of the selected features of the parameters of the connection, has been carried out. The directions of work for the improvement of the constructed model were formulated.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(29):104-117

ROBUST CONTROL OF THE RECOVERY PROCESS OF TETRACHLORIDE TITANIUM MAGNESIUM

#### Abstract

A robust approach to controlling the process of titanium reduction is considered, which makes it possible to intensify the process by increasing the temperature. The control object is the exothermic reaction zone of the industrial titanium recovery apparatus, represented by the control object with interval-indeterminate parameters, the set temperature value of which is maintained by the on-off regulator. The technological limitation of the value of the maximum temperature of the control object is determined. A description of the object in the form of an interval dynamic model is obtained. Using the model in the class of two-point systems, an analysis of robust quality and synthesis of robust control of the temperature of the control object was carried out. The analysis of robust quality provides the definition of the worst performance indicator of a two-position temperature control system for any values of object parameters from known intervals. Such an indicator is the maximum possible amplitude of the positive temperature deviation, characterizing in the two-position system the magnitude of the excess of the setpoint set by the temperature. Synthesis of robust temperature control is based on the concept of guaranteed (minimax) control, suggesting the achievement of the best result with the worst combinations of uncertain factors. Its application allows the on-off regulator to robust properties to maintain the maximum permissible temperature of the control object, which are provided by using the amplitude of the positive temperature deviation as a guaranteed criterion for estimating the operation of the two-position system. The task of synthesis of robust control is to find such a given value for a two-position controller that would guarantee the maintenance of the maximum permissible temperature of the object if there are undetermined factors in the interval model. In this formulation of the problem, the set value of the on-off regulator is the guaranteeing control of the temperature of the object. The article considers the evolutionary way of solving the problem of intensification of the restoration process, which involves the development, based on the interval dynamic model and practical implementation of the proposed methods of robust temperature control at different stages of automation of sponge titanium production with the use of centralized control machines, control computers, microprocessor controllers and computers. Robust control allowed to increase the temperature and improve the technological parameters of the process of reduction of titanium tetrachloride with magnesium.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(29):118-135

FPGA LUT WITH TWO SHANNON DECOMPOZITION OUTPUTS

#### Abstract

At present, the number of logic elements, programmable logic integrated circuits of the FPGA(field-programmable gate array) type reaches several million, which creates completely new possibilities in the design of digital equipment.In this case, the basis of the so-called adaptive logic modules (ALMs) FPGA are the trees of transistors LUT (Look Up Table), which calculate logical functions in full disjunctive normal form (FDNF).When working in arithmetic mode, logical functions are calculated that differ in the value of one variable, for example, carry from discharge to discharge, which allows to speed up the implementation of a multi-digit adder.To do this, take two LUTs, whose outputs are multiplexed by the value of this variable, that is, how to calculate the logical functions "for future use".A similar principle is used in the HyperFlex architecture, where theShannon decomposition (or Boolean factorization) of the logic function in the feedback loop allows for an increase in the speed of the state machine.Two copies of the flip-flop logic function are used, which are also selected by the 2-1multiplexer.Despite the lack of shortage of logical elements in some applications, for example, in fault-tolerant equipment, these kind of duplicating elements could be useful, for example, when building redundant structures.Therefore, it is proposed to implement the Shannon decomposition on the basis of one LUT for which only the last two transistors of the corresponding tree with the output inverter are duplicated, since the same logical function is calculated, but on a set of arguments that differ only in one variable.The article describes the proposed technical solution and estimates the gain in the number of transistors in relation to the known solution.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(29):136-147

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF AN EXPERIMENTAL SAMPLE OF REACTIVE ELECTRICAL MA TIRE WITH ANISOTROPIC MAGNETIC CONDUCTIVITY OF THE ROTOR

#### Abstract

The analysis of various types of reactive electric tanks of the most frequencies used in an adjustable electric drive is presented. On the basis of the analysis, it has been shown and proved that the reactive machine with anisotropic magnetic conductivity of the rotor has the best energy, weight and size, and operational characteristics among various types of jet electric machines and the most popular asynchronous electric machine. The results of experimental studies of jet machines with anisotropic magnetic conductivity of the rotor (SynRM) with installed capacity from 1.5 kW to 500 kW, as well as approbation of the design and control theory of a reactive electric machine with anisotropic magnetic conductivity are presented. The design and manufacturing technology of a prototype rotor model of a reactive machine with anisotropic magnetic conductivity with longitudinal loading is described in detail. A comparison was made of the results of studies of reactive electric machines, in which the properties of the anisotropic magnetic conductivity of the rotor were obtained by its longitudinal and transverse blending. According to the results of experimental studies, various graphs of the operating characteristics of the electric drive were constructed. The study of the dynamic properties of the electric drive with SynRM. The timing diagrams of the start-up of the investigated electric machine are given. The results of thermal tests allowed us to establish the limiting possibilities inherent in the design of a prototype machine with a nominal installed capacity of 500 kW. A comparison of the prototype of a reactive electric machine with the anisotropic magnetic conductivity of the rotor with an asynchronous machine in terms of specific power. Studies and tests allowed verification of theoretical studies and the developed design methodology of SynRM and showed their adequacy.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(29):148-173

NEW METHOD FOR INCREASE OF ANTI-JAMMING STABILITY OF GPS NAVIGATION SYSTEMS

#### Abstract

The paper is devoted to the developed new method for decrease of effect of specially formed hindering signals on functioning of GPS navigation system. The effect of hindering signal of jamming type irradiated by technical means of adversary side is considered. Generation of hindering signal of relevant frequency and sufficient power by adversary is carried out by the aim to reach the condition of non-possibility of receipt of GPS signals. The suggested method is based on basic equation of aerial theory, that is Frees equation. According to Frees equation the power of signal receipt by antenna of one of sides with defined gain coefficient can be calculated upon irradiation of signal from other antenna with known gain coefficient. The new parameter calculated by integration of Frees formula on passed route supposing static character of jamming source position is suggested. On the basis of research of suggested parameter that is an integrated on passed rout Frees formula the target functional is formed taking into account the motionless position of jamming signal of generator and non-changeable direction of object toward target containing jamming signal generator. The possible strategies for changing the jamming signal power on transition of object on route are also taken into account. It is shown that suggested parameter is of extremum feature upon direct or inverse identity of gain coefficient of antennas of object and jamming signal generator: upon direct identity the suggested parameter reaches the minimum and upon inverse identity maximum. Taking into account the extremum feature of suggested parameter the method and algorithm for decrease of effect of jamming signal on functioning of GPS navigation systems of various technical constructions are developed.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(29):174-190

CONNECTION OF THE OCCUPATIONAL COEFFICIENTS WITH TWO INPUTS AND SIX OUTPUTS

#### Abstract

Eight-port networks of various versions, including an eight-port network with two input and six output terminals, are necessary to replace some energy facilities. Especially when only the input and output characteristics of electrical energy are of interest. Features of the state of the eight-port network are described by equations of various forms. To describe the state of an eight-port network with two input and six output outputs in power engineering, the A-form equations are most often used. In addition, the equations of the B-form, G-form, H-form, Y-form and Z-form are used. The equations of these forms are presented in the article. And for the implementation of these equations it is necessary to have information about the numerical values of the corresponding coefficients. They can be determined experimentally. It is enough to experimentally determine the coefficients of the equations of any one form. The method of this definition is known. The coefficients of equations of other forms can be determined analytically. For this, it is necessary to have an idea of the quantitative relation of the coefficients of equations of various forms among themselves. The proposed article is dedicated to the identification of such a connection. The article presents a method for identifying such links. It was found that it is advisable to take the B-form equations as basic equations. It is with the coefficients of the B-form equations that describe the quantitative relationship between the output and input characteristics of electrical energy in a passive eight-terminal network with two input and six output outputs. It is most convenient to establish a connection between the coefficients of the A-form, G-form, H-form, Y-form, and Z-forms describing the state of the same eight-port network. Formulas are established that establish a quantitative relationship between the coefficients of the B-form equations and the coefficients of the A-form, G-form, H-form, Y-form and Z-form equations describing the state of an electric power object, replaced by a passive eight-pole network with two input and six output pins. The presented method of forming a quantitative relationship between the coefficients of equations of various forms can be extended to other types of multipoles. Such a connection will significantly increase the possibility of using multipoles in engineering practice.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(29):191-208

INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM BASED ON THE ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEM

#### Abstract

Today, the interest in artificial immune systems has increased many times, because immune system solves a large number of problems in the field of computer security. Intrusion detection system provides protection against network attacks. The system scans network traffic for signatures of attacks that exploit operating system vulnerabilities and installed programs. The article describes a statistical model of an intrusion detection system, based on artificial immune system, with the detector sets chosen based on packet headers. For correct operation of intrusion detection systems, a deterministic set of operating parameters is required. Only header values are used to study the anomalous behavior of packets during transmission in any TCP/IP network traffic. Based on the test results, methods for improving the intrusion detection system have been proposed and implemented. The article combines the theory of negative selection, one of the most important theories of artificial immune systems, and the rules of machine learning, and offering a new intrusion detection system. In the negative selection module, instead of using only the normal profile, to separate and classify the packages into two different classes, an additional check of each package is performed using expert rules created earlier on the basis of the normal profile table. Thus, the package goes through more stages, in order to specify whether the package is anomalous. As a result, the frequency of false positives is significantly reduced, and the frequency of detection increases. Generate detectors, a set of basic rules has been developed, using data analysis and machine learning software, and then new detectors were generated and detailed, inside the negative selection module. After testing the proposed model, using the DARPA1999 data set, the model showed good performance compared to previous models.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2019;(29):209-224