## No 1 (2020)

**Year:**2020**Articles:**12**URL:**https://ered.pstu.ru/index.php/mechanics/issue/view/43**DOI:**https://doi.org/10.15593/perm.mech/2020.1

On modeling bodies with delaminating coatings taking into account the fields of prestresses

#### Abstract

The paper presents a model of steady-state oscillations of an inhomogeneous body with a prestressed exfoliating coating based on a general linearized statement of the problem of the motion of a prestressed-strained elastic body. On its basis, the statement of the problem of oscillations of an inhomogeneous strip consisting of a substrate and a prestressed coating is formulated, between which there is a delamination in a certain region. Steady oscillations are caused by a load applied to the upper boundary of the coating. To calculate the oscillations of the two-dimensional structure under consideration, the Fourier transform in the longitudinal coordinate was used and the original problem was reduced to solving a number of auxiliary boundary value problems with respect to transformants of the desired functions. From the conditions that the stress functions vanish (the cover is modeled as a mathematical section) of the substrate and the coating, the operator relations are constructed in the area of delamination to calculate the opening functions. The kernels of these operator relations are singular and are integrals over an infinite interval. A study was made of the behavior of their integrands at infinity, on the basis of which special approaches were used to calculate the kernels. As a result of solving the obtained hypersingular equations with difference kernels, for which the collocation method is used, the originals of the disclosure functions are constructed. Using a similar approach for inverting the Fourier transformations, we constructed relations to calculate the originals of the displacement functions at the upper boundary of the coverage. Based on the computational experiments, an analysis is made of the influence of the initial geometric and mechanical parameters of the substrate and coating on the values of the disclosure functions in the delamination region and the displacement functions at the upper boundary of the layer. The influence of the prestress level on the amplitude-frequency characteristics (AFC) was also investigated. It was found that the most significant effect on the frequency response is in the vicinity of the frequencies of the thick resonances. Based on the information on the displacement fields, it is possible to construct schemes for identifying delamination characteristics.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2020;(1):5-16

The Theoretical and experimental study of the bending of a thin substrate during electrolytic deposition

#### Abstract

The present paper is aimed at the theoretical and experimental study of the shape distortion of thin substrates during electrolytic deposition and gaccumulation of residual stresses in them. The theoretical modeling is provided in the framework of the theory of solids with variable material composition. The result of the deposition process is modeled with a continuous family of elastic bodies, which local deformations are incompatible. These deformations act as internal sources for stresses. Formally they are equivalent to the field of distributed defects. Unlike the classical approach adopted in nonlinear elasticity, the elements of the family which present a body with a variable material composition don’t have a global reference natural (free of stresses) form. Instead we used the continuous family being only locally free from stresses. To formulate the boundary value problem, continuous families of reference, intermediate and actual forms and corresponding families of deformations are defined. The deformations, belonging to these families, locally represent implants (local deformations of reference forms into intermediate ones) and deformations that bring intermediate forms into actual ones. Relations for stresses and strains in such bodies are obtained under the assumption that the displacement gradients are small with respect to unity and satisfy the kinematic hypothesis of the technical plate theory. Under these assumptions the equilibrium equations are derived. They include specific terms which determine formal loading that is caused by incompatible deformations. Axisymmetric problems for a circular substrate under various types of fixing and tension on the boundary, which characterize the conditions of the experiment, are obtained. The theoretical distribution for displacements of the substrate surface is formulated upon the obtained solution. They are intended to identify incompatible deformations that cause bending during the deposition process. The experimental measuring setup is constructed according to a holographic scheme of displacement measurements in real time. The deposition process is carried out in a cylindrical chamber with flange fastening of the cathode. The electrochemical process is implemented in sulphate electrolyte. As a result of comparing the theoretically obtained relations for bending surfaces of the substrate with the experimental results, the parameters that characterize the substrate shrinkage and tension are estimated.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2020;(1):17-31

The Applied model of grinding a spherical solid particle with a direct impact on a non-deformable flat surface

#### Abstract

A grinding process using a free impact breakage mechanism is used in industries. In order to make calculations, predict grinding results, and evaluate mills functioning, it is necessary to assess the parameters of the grinding process and interrelations between the process parameters, mills parameters and materials properties, i.e. it is necessary to use an adequate mechanical-mathematical model of the process. However it is difficult to model due to some phenomena occurring in this process. Nowadays, various researchers have established the basis for the structure of the grinding process, but the application of the existing hypotheses and methods to evaluate the grinding process is quite difficult. This paper solves the problem of a spherical shape particle impacting an absolutely rigid half-space. It proposes a refined mechanical and mathematical model describing the process of destruction of the particle using the free direct impact breakage mechanism on an absolutely rigid, stationary, and flat surface. By using the Hertz-Staerman's classical analytical dependencies on the force contact interaction of the spherical bodies and the technical theory of the longitudinal waves’ propagation in the elastic continuous medium, we obtained a new refined solution of the applied dynamic problem related to a direct impact of a ball simulating a particle of a feeding material (an absolutely rigid surface simulating the working body of the mill) taking into account local physically linear deformations, the time parameter and radial particle size. The improved theoretical model of the spherical particle destruction was brought to applicable analytical calculations, tested and illustrated by a numerical example. It made it possible to describe the fracture of the material particles, predict the result and calculate the grinding process depending on its parameters providing the required quality of grinding by regulating and selecting characteristics, designing and selecting the grinding equipment, and modeling the grinding process using the free impact breakage mechanism.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2020;(1):32-42

The Nonlinear evolutionary problem for self-stressed multilayered hyperelastic spherical bodies

#### Abstract

The present paper studies the evolutionary problem for self-stressed multilayered spherical shells. Their stress-strain state is characterized by incompatible local finite deformations that arise due to the geometric incompatibility of the stress-free shapes of the individual layers with each other. In the considered problem, these shapes are thin-walled hollow balls that cannot be assembled into a single solid without gaps or overlaps. Such an assembly is possible only with the preliminary deformations of individual layers, which cause self-balanced stresses in them. For multilayered structures with a large number of layers, a smoothing procedure is proposed, as a result of which the piecewise continuous functions defining the preliminary deformation of the layers are replaced by continuous distributions. The reference stress-free shape of a body constructed in this way is defined within the framework of geometric continuum mechanics as a manifold with a non-Euclidean (material) connection. For the problem in question, this connection is determined by the metric tensor and its deviation from the Euclidean connection is characterized by the scalar curvature. Generalized representations for Cauchy and Piola stresses are also obtained by the methods of geometric continuum mechanics. Computations, provided for the discrete structure and body with a non-Euclidean reference shape defined by the approximation of deformation parameters, numerically illustrate the convergency of the solution for the discrete model to corresponded solution for the continuous problem if the number of layers is increasing while their total thickness is constant. In modelling it is assumed that the material of the layers is compressible, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and determined by the first-order Mooney - Rivlin elastic potential. Individual layerwise finite deformations are supposed to be centrally symmetric.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2020;(1):43-59

The limit state of concrete and reinforced concrete rods at complex and longitudinal-transverse bending

#### Abstract

The work considers rods with a constant cross-section. The deformation law of each layer of the rod is adopted as an approximation by a polynomial of the second order. The method of determining the coefficients of the indicated polynomial and the limit deformations under compression and tension of the material of each layer is described with the presence of three traditional characteristics: modulus of elasticity, limit stresses at compression and tension. On the basis of deformation diagrams of the concrete grades B10, B30, B50 under tension and compression, these coefficients are determined by the method of least squares. The deformation diagrams of these concrete grades are compared on the basis of the approximations obtained by the limit values and the method of least squares, and it is found that these diagrams approximate quite well the real deformation diagrams at deformations close to the limit. The main problem in this work is to determine if the rod is able withstand the applied loads, before intensive cracking processes in concrete. So as a criterion of the conditional limit state this work adopts the maximum permissible deformation value under tension or compression corresponding to the points of transition to a falling branch on the deformation diagram level in one or more layers of the rod. The Kirchhoff-Lyav classical kinematic hypotheses are assumed to be valid for the rod deformation. The cases of statically determinable and statically indeterminable problems of bend of the rod are considered. It is shown that in the case of statically determinable loadings, the general solution of the problem comes to solving a system of three nonlinear algebraic equations which roots can be obtained with the necessary accuracy using the well-developed methods of computational mathematics. The general solution of the problem for statically indeterminable problems is reduced to obtaining a solution to a system of three nonlinear differential equations for three functions - deformation and curvatures. The Bubnov-Galerkin method is used to approximate the solution of this equation on the segment along the length of the rod, and specific examples of its application to the Maple system of symbolic calculations are considered.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2020;(1):60-73

Modeling a Dynamic Response at Resonant Vibrations of an Elongated Plate with an Integral Damping Coating

#### Abstract

Classical methods of surface damping using free and constraining damping layers are discussed. The structure of a perspective integrated version of a damping coating is presented. This integral damping coating consists of two layers of a material with pronounced viscoelastic properties, between which there is a thin reinforcing layer of a high modulus material. A generalization of the Thompson-Kelvin-Voigt model is given for the description of viscoelastic properties of the material under tension-compression in the case of a complex stress state. A finite-element method was developed to determine the dynamic response of an elongated plate with the integral damping coating. This method is based on a four-layer finite element with 14 degrees of freedom: the main material is within the Kirchhoff-Love's model, the damping layers are in a flat stress state, the reinforcing layer perceives tension and compression. This model allows us to take into account the effect of transverse compression of the damping layers of the plate, which significantly increases its damping properties at high vibration frequencies. The stiffness matrices, the damping matrices, and the mass matrices of the constituent layers aim at obtaining similar complete matrices of a finite element. A system of resolving equations was obtained on the basis of the Lagrange equations of the second kind with respect to the vector of nodal displacements of the finite element model of the plate with an arbitrary dynamic load. In the case of a harmonic load with a frequency that coincides with one of the frequencies of free vibrations of the plate, a transition to a modal equation with respect to the normal coordinate corresponding to the given frequency is possible. Numerical experiments were carried out to test the developed finite element method using the example of a hingedly supported elongated plate with an integral damping coating. The numerical experiments showed a qualitative change in the composition of stresses in the damping layers of the plate at high vibration frequencies, which significantly affects its damping properties.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2020;(1):74-86

The effect of surface plastic hardening technology, residual stresses and boundary conditions on the buckling of a beam

#### Abstract

The complex influence of the surface plastic hardening technology, residual stresses, and boundary conditions on the bending of a hardened beam of EP742 alloy was performed. A phenomenological method of restoring the fields of residual stress and plastic deformations performed by its experimental verification in the particular case of ultrasonic hardening is given. The correspondence of the calculated and experimental data for the residual stresses is observed. For assess the influence of the formed residual stresses on convex cylinders, the calculation methods are used for initial strains based on using analogies between the initial (residual) plastic strains and temperature strains in an inhomogeneous temperature field. This allowed us to reduce the consideration of the problem to the problem of thermoelasticity, which was further solved by numerical methods. The effect of four types of boundary conditions for fixing the ends of the beams (rigid fastening and articulation of the ends and ribs in various combinations, cantilever) on the shape and size of the bending of the beam 10×10×100 mm after ultrasonic hardening is studied in detail. It was found that the minimum deflection is observed with a hard seal of both ends of the beam. The effect of the thickness of the beam, which varied from 2 to 10 mm, on their buckling under the same distribution of residual stresses in the hardened layer was studied, and the nonlinear nature of the increase in the deflection boom with decreasing thickness for all types of boundary conditions was established. It is shown that under all boundary conditions, the curvature along the length of the beam practically does not change, therefore it can be considered constant. The consequence of this is the preservation of the hypothesis of flat sections after the hardening procedure, which is confirmed by the calculated profile of the beam section in plane symmetry, close to a straight line. The influence of the anisotropy of surface plastic hardening on the buckling of the beam was found to be significant, which can serve as the basis for choosing the optimal hardening procedure. The performed parametric analysis of the task is presented in the form of graphical and tabular information on the results of the calculations.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2020;(1):87-98

The Ultimate Load Estimation of Welded Joints of High-Strength Steels subject to Mechanical and Geometric Heterogeneity

#### Abstract

In this paper we consider the problems arising in the numerical estimation of the ultimate load of welded joints of high-strength steels with slight hardening. The stress concentrator in the transition node from the deposited to the base metal is modeled based on the example of welding a roller wire on a plate made of high-strength steel. The use of welding wire with a yield point lower than that of the base metal allowed to simulate areas of the welded joint with heterogeneous mechanical properties. The geometry of three areas of the welded joint is studied, i.e. weld metal, heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the base metal. Mechanical properties of all three areas are determined by calculation and experimentally. For this purpose, it is proposed to consider the material in all sections as ideally elastic-plastic, and the yield strength is uniquely associated with the hardness in the indentation zone (a Rockwell diamond cone is used). Calculations of the inelastic indentation process by the finite element method (FEM) in axis-symmetric formulation allowed obtaining a linear relationship between the hardness and the yield strength with a coefficient of 0.418. Tests at a quasi-static three-point bend (with stretching in the surfacing area) were carried out on sample beams cut perpendicular to the direction of welding. The “force-deflection” diagrams are obtained and compared with the calculated curves (FEM in a three-dimensional formulation with an explicit consideration of the complex configuration of all sections and different yield stress in the areas determined by local hardness values). There is a good agreement between the calculated and experimental ultimate loads. The proposed method of the three-stage study (determination of local hardness, yield strength in the areas and the ultimate load) can be effectively used to assess the ultimate loads of the welded joints due to the low parametricity of the proposed models of materials inelastic deformation in areas for which it is impossible to manufacture standard samples for the study of mechanical properties. The experimental study of the strengthening effect of the seam with a stress concentrator in the form of an angle of 90 degrees on the value of the ultimate bending load showed that the removal of the deposited metal does not lead to an increase in the ultimate load of the welded joint when using the welding wire of low-carbon high-plastic steel.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2020;(1):99-108

Two methods for calculating the stress-strain state of shape memory alloy constructions taking into account tension-compression asymmetry

#### Abstract

Two methods for calculating the phase-structural deformations of shape memory alloy (SMA) structures under complex stress conditions are considered. They both are based on the one-dimensional phenomenological model, which is built upon the relationship between the direct transformation and martensitic inelasticity diagrams, which makes it possible to uniformly describe strains in the phase and structural transformations, since both of the strain components are associated with the formation of oriented martensite. The ability of the model to describe a number of basic macromechanical effects caused by martensitic transformations in SMA was shown in our previous work. After the generalization to the case of a complex stress state it can successfully be used for solving certain engineering problems. The generalization of the model can be accomplished in two ways. The first method involves the construction of three-dimensional constitutive relations, proceeding from the previously developed one-dimensional relations and some simplifying hypotheses, and the numerical implementation of these relations by the finite element method. The second is the structural method, applicable to structures, in which the stress-strain state is described by one kinematic and one force parameter. This method suggests the use of structural diagrams of direct transformation and martensitic inelasticity, which are similar to the corresponding material diagrams, but establish the dependence of the phase-structural component of the kinematic parameter on the force parameter (not the dependence of phase-structural strains on the stress). Although the structural method is associated with the necessity to experimentally determine the structural diagrams, it has the advantage of significantly reducing the computational costs. Additionally, the article presents a comparison of two methods for describing the tension-compression asymmetry, and also develops a method taking finite deformations into account.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2020;(1):109-125

A Dynamic expansion of a cylindrical cavity in a compressible elastic-plastic medium. The Analysis of medium resistance to dynamic penetration of a sharp-nosed impactor

#### Abstract

This paper presents the solution of the problem related to the dynamic cylindrical cavity expansion in a compressible elastic-plastic medium. Finite strains, nonlinear compressibility and dependence of the yield stress versus pressure are taken into account in the problem formulation. The study targets at developing a new engineering model on the penetration of a sharp-nosed impactor in the range of middle impact velocities based on the problem analysis results of the cylindrical cavity expansion in a half-space (cylindrical cavity expansion approximation). Based on the analytical approach a model is obtained that determines the resistance of the medium to dynamic cavity expansion. The main parameters of the model depend on the mechanical properties of the medium. For these dependences we proposed approximating relations based on manipulation of the mechanical properties of a number of materials (some alloys and soils). To derive the dynamic penetration model the A.Ya. Sagomonyan assumption of the radial expansion of the hole is used. It is assumed that particles of the medium material move in a radial direction from the surface of the impactor penetrating into the shield. Such assumption can be applied for the class of impactors in the form of slender sharp-nosed bodies of revolution. Based on the assumptions we obtained a model of the medium resistance to the dynamic penetration of a slender sharp-nosed body of revolution. The new model, in addition to the "standard" strength and inertial components, contains the "attached mass", which changes during the penetration process. The experimental validation of the new penetration model using a series of experimental studies on the penetration of various forms of impactors into aluminum alloys is considered. The influence of the “attached mass” and inertial forces of the medium resistance to the penetration is estimated. The conditions of applicability of the new model are obtained: the penetration model is applicable for estimation of the resistance of a compressible medium to penetration of a thin sharp-nosed body of revolution at impact velocities of 200-800 m/s.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2020;(1):126-137

The Refined Model of Viscoelastic-Plastic Deformation of Reinforced Cylindrical Shells

#### Abstract

The paper formulates the initial-boundary-value problem of the viscoelastic-plastic bending behavior of cylindrical circular shells cross-reinforced along equidistant surfaces. The instant elastoplastic deformation of the shell composition components is described by the governing equations of the theory of plastic flow with isotropic hardening. The viscoelastic deformation of these materials is described by the defining relations of the Maxwell - Boltzmann model of body. The geometric nonlinearity of the problem is taken into account in the Karman approximation. The used system of two-dimensional resolving equations and the corresponding initial and boundary conditions make it possible to determine displacements and stress-strain state (including residual one) in materials of the composition of flexible cylindrical shells with varying degrees of accuracy. In this case, the weak resistance of the considered composite structures to transverse shears is taken into account. In the first approximation, the equations are used, the initial and boundary conditions correspond to the relations of the widely used non-classical Reddy theory. A numerical solution of the initial-boundary-value problem posed is constructed using an explicit step-by-step "cross" scheme. The elastoplastic and viscoelastic-plastic dynamic deformation of a relatively thin long circular cylindrical shell is investigated. The structure is rationally reinforced in the circumferential direction and is loaded with an internal pressure of an explosive type. It has been demonstrated that under intense short-term loading even of a relatively thin cylindrical reinforced shell by internal pressure, the traditional Reddy theory does not guarantee that the maximum residual deflection and the intensity of residual deformations of the components of the composition are accurate to within 10% compared to calculations performed by the refined theory. The difference in the results of the corresponding calculations increases with an increase in the relative thickness of the composite shell. It was found that after plastic deformation of a long reinforced cylindrical shell in its residual state, not only appear zones of edge effects, but also a local zone of an intense deformation located in the vicinity of the central section of the shell. The length of the local central zone is comparable with the length of the zones of edge effects. It is shown that the amplitude of the transverse vibrations of the reinforced shell in the vicinity of the initial moment of time significantly (by an order of magnitude) exceeds the value of the maximum modulus of the residual deflection. Therefore, the calculations performed in the framework of the theory of elastoplastic deformation of composition materials do not allow a very approximate determination of the magnitude of the residual displacements and the magnitude of the residual deformed state of the components of the composition of the cylindrical shell.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2020;(1):138-149

The Refined Plane Mechanical and Mathematical Model Determining Stresses in the Base of the Strip Foundation and Elastic Sediment

#### Abstract

The paper presents a new refined-modified solution of the fundamental two-dimensional problem of the elasticity theory on the perpendicular application to the boundary of the half-plane of a concentrated-linear constant load. In contrast to the similar classical Fleman problem, which is a special case of a simple radial stress state, all three stress components, two normal and one tangent, as well as an additional geometric parameter characterizing the width of the site of the external local force’s actual distribution have been taken into consideration. In addition, on the basis of the classical interpretation of plane deformation, the known contradictions are eliminated that are associated with the uncertainty of the angular displacement at the boundary of the half-space and with the constancy of the second kinematic component in the pursuit of the infinity coordinates of an arbitrary point of the base material. In the course of the research, it is proved that there are cylindrical surfaces where equal tensile stresses act which trajectories have the shape of circles. In a simplified Fleman solution of such curves- isobars are Boussinesq circles with constant the principal compressive stresses. The derived analytical dependences are presented in a rectangular frame of reference, which allows to quantify the following with a high accuracy: 1) stresses in the depth of the base in horizontal and vertical sections; 2) contact pressure and draft of the soil elastic surface under the sole of a rigid long foundation when the base, within the generally accepted assumptions, is assumed to be linearly deformable, homogeneous, isotropic, solid, experiencing a one-time load. The results of the developed generalized physical and mathematical model can serve as a conceptual basis used in solving special fundamental and applied problems of mechanics directly related to the refined calculation of the bearing capacity of various parts and structures, widely used in modern engineering and construction such as bearings, cylindrical rollers, gears, foundations strip foundations, pavements in their steel compaction rolls, etc.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2020;(1):150-164