Российский журнал биомеханики

Российский журнал биомеханики

Периодичность публикаций : 4 раза в год
Издательство : Пермский национальный исследовательский политехнический университет, Пермь, РФ.
ISSN печатной версии -  2409-6601
ISSN электронной версии - 2410-065X
Язык: Русский
Главный редактор: д.ф.-м.н. А.Г. Кучумов
e-mail: kychymov@inbox.ru

Российский журнал биомеханики  - международный рецензируемый журнал, основанный в 1997 году, в котором исследователи из России и других стран могут опубликовать  свои новые и инновационные результаты в области биомеханики. Российский журнал биомеханики принимает к публикации научные статьи, обзорные статьи, технические заметки и короткие сообщения, демонстрирующие новые решения сложных современных задач, стоящих перед биомеханиками, с применением принципов механики для изучения биологических проблем.

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Current Issue

Vol 25, No 4 (2021)

Articles
Influence of the internal carotid arteries stenosis on the hemodynamics of the circle of Willis communicating arteries: a numerical study
Dol A.V., Ivanov D.V., Bakhmetev A.S., Kireev S.I., Maystrenko D.N., Gudz A.A.

Abstract

Modern authors argue that carotid arteries stenosis leads to changes in circle of Willis blood flow, which may contribute to aneurysm formation. It was found that up to 3.2 % of patients with carotid arteries stenosis have associated cerebral aneurysms. Moreover, it is known that performing a surgical intervention to remove carotid stenoses can lead to a decrease in cerebral aneurysm size or their complete disappearance. In this regard, the problem arises of studying effect of the carotid arteries stenosis on human brain vessels aneurysms development. In this work, a biomechanical study of the anterior communicating and posterior communicating arteries hemodynamics for various variants of the circle of Willis structure in combination with atherosclerotic plaques of carotid arteries was carried out. Based on computed angiography data, 45 models of the circle of Willis and carotid arteries with various degrees of stenosis and localization of atherosclerotic plaques were constructed and analyzed. Numerical modeling of the unsteady blood flow in the circle of Willis and carotid arteries was performed in Ansys CFX. Wall shear stress of the anterior and posterior communicating arteries were analyzed, as well as mass blood flows along these arteries. The influence of the carotid arteries stenosis degree, as well as their combination with anomalies in the circle of Willis on change in wall shear stresses and mass blood flows in communicating arteries, was evaluated. The most dangerous combinations of the carotid arteries stenosis and types of the cerebral arterial circle which increase the risk of developing communicating arteries aneurysms were identified.
Российский журнал биомеханики. 2021;25(4):356-368
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MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF LASER CORRECTION OF MYOPIA BY LASIK, SMILE AND PRK METHODS
Bauer S.M., Venatovskaya L.A., Kachanov A.B., Kornikov V.V.

Abstract

The stress-strain state of the human eye, which cornea in its apexis is weakened after myopia surgical correction, is studied. The elastic system “cornea-sclera” is presented as two joint transversely isotropic spherical segments with tapered thickness, different radii of curvature and biomechanical properties. Cornea is modeled as multilayer shell. The simulated eye shell is loaded with internal pressure. Mathematical models of three different laser vision correction surgeries: small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE), laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), are developed in the engineering simulation software ANSYS Inc. The diameter and thickness of the lenticular in SMILE, the diameter of the ablation zone and the maximum thickness (depth) of the corneal ablation in LASIK and PRK define optical surgery areas and are considered as comparable parameters. Finite element simulation shows that after LASIK vision correction the apex of the cornea has a greater displacement and the stress increase greater in the stroma than after SMILE and PRK.
Российский журнал биомеханики. 2021;25(4):369-375
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LOCATION OF THE TEETH IN THE SPACE OF THE OCCLUSAL SPHERE OF PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRUCTURE OF THE GNATIC PART OF THE FACE
Ivanova O.P.

Abstract

Functional movements of the lower jaw occur during chewing, swallowing, and talking. These movements are considered with in three planes within certain limits. Many works of domestic and foreign researchers are devoted to the location of teeth in the interdigital space. The main theories of articulation were proposed by W.G. Bonvil (1858), F. Spee (1896), D. Monson (1917), and others. The dentoalveolar system is a closed kinematic system in which all the elements are interconnected and represent concentric circles and spheres with a single functional center. In this article, the location of the teeth in the space of the occlusal sphere on the tomograms of the patients ' heads in the lateral and axial projections is considered. It was found that in patients with brachygnatic structure of the gnatic part of the face, characterized by wide and short dental arches, the teeth in the large occlusal space were located at a lower angle to the center of the circle than in patients with mesognatic structure. In patients with dolichognathic structure, which is characterized by narrow and long dental arches, in a small occlusal space, the teeth were located at a greater angle to the center of the circle, compared to the other two types of structure. The location of the teeth at an angle characteristic of each of the types of structure of the gnatic face shape caused the severity of the compensatory sagittal and transversal curves. This circumstance determines the optimal functional dynamics of the lower jaw in the space of the occlusal sphere of the maxillofacial part of the skull. This eliminates acute and chronic occlusal trauma, normalizes the function of the masticatory muscles and joints.
Российский журнал биомеханики. 2021;25(4):376-382
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DYNAMICS OF MUSCLE ELECTRIC ACTIVITY PARAMETERS AND MAXIMUM POWER CHARACTERISTICS IN DIFFERENT PHASES OF PERFORMANCE OF WEIGHTLIFTING SNATCH
Nopin S.V., Koryagina Y.V., Ter-Akopov G.N., Abutalimova S.M.

Abstract

Weightlifting exercises are coordinately complex, speed and power based movements, which simultaneously combine the maximum muscle work with different contraction types and limit the result with special functional features of the neuromuscular apparatus. According to modern views, indicators of biomechanics of the motor act and electromyographic characteristics of leading muscles during performance of the act show different aspects of the same process of contraction and can be used as criteria for an evaluation of muscle efforts and the functional state of the neuromuscular apparatus. The objective of this study is to identify special features of dynamics of muscle electric activity parameters and maximum power characteristics in different phases of weightlifting snatch. The study involved 35 male elite weightlifters with the Master of Sports qualification. The study was conducted with the BTS Motion System (made by BTS Bioengineering, Italy). A computer program was developed to analyze the technique of the snatch (the certificate RU 2020660142 from 28.08.2020). The study included registration and following analysis of biomechanical (dynamic, kinematic) and electromyographic indicators during performance of the snatch by athletes with 80% intensity of the maximum weight directly during the training session. Features of dynamics of muscles’ electric activity parameters and maximum power characteristics, which are significantly changing in different phases of performance of the snatch, were revealed in the study. Pull phases are characterized by the increase of muscle tension, muscle work in the concentric dynamic contraction. Snatch phases are characterized by the maximum power of muscle tension and the speed of its dynamics according to both biomechanical features and electrical processes in muscles: a maximum tension and high frequency of impulsion of motor units of extensor muscles were noted. Squat phases are characterized by the decrease of muscle tension and speed of its changing, muscle work in the combined type of contraction, including eccentric and static types. High, but not maximum indicators of power and tension of muscles characterize phases of standing-up. It was revealed that the eccentric muscle contraption, according to EMG indicators, is manifested in the decrease of both amplitude and frequency characteristics. The concluded study allowed to present data characterizing biomechanics of the motor act and special physiological features of leading muscles’ work of elite weightlifters during performance of the exercise. Power and electromyographic parameters in various types of muscle work in different phases of the snatch were determined.
Российский журнал биомеханики. 2021;25(4):383-392
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ELASTICITY AND RELAXATION PROPERTIES OF ORAL FLUID
Rozhkov A.N.

Abstract

The study is aimed at creating a method for rheological testing of viscoelastic fluids, the droplets of which, when stretched, form thinning threads, i.e. exhibit the property of spinning. A typical representative of such fluids is oral fluid (or mixed saliva). Among other things, the rheological features of the oral fluid actively affect the mechanisms of transmission of infection by airborne droplets. In this work, the oral fluid was studied, both from the point of view of a participant in the transmission of infection, and as a model for studying the rheology of viscoelastic fluids. The method is based on video recording of the stretching of a drop of the test liquid between the legs of the tweezers and the subsequent spontaneous thinning of the formed capillary thread of the liquid. The process is controlled by the competition of forces of inertia, elasticity, capillarity. By analyzing the video recording, it is possible to trace the contribution of each factor and, within the framework of the Oldroyd/Maxwell rheological equation of state (model), determine the numerical values of all model constants. The obtained rheological characteristics of the oral fluid will make it possible to theoretically model the processes of the formation of drops of oral fluid during sneezing, coughing, talking, as well as the processes of collision of drops with protective masks and filters, as well as with other obstacles. In general, the proposed method of rheological testing is applicable for studying a wide class of viscoelastic fluids, including biological ones. Among the latter are bronchial sputum, synovial fluid, reproductive fluids and others. The method is distinguished by the simplicity of the experiment and the use of elementary equipment.
Российский журнал биомеханики. 2021;25(4):393-405
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COVID-19: Application of INTRA-PULMONARY INJECTION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE SOLUTION ELIMINATES HYPOXIA AND NORMALIZES RESPIRATORY BIOMECHANICS IN RESPIRATORY OBSTRUCTION
Urakov A.L., Urakova N.A.

Abstract

Severe non-specific pneumonia is complicated by airway obstruction, which is caused by swelling of the mucous membranes of the airways and blockage of their mucus, pus and thick sputum with streaks of blood. A particularly significant decrease in airiness occurs in the peripheral regions of the lungs. This is why the air introduced through the upper respiratory tract does not reach the alveoli, primarily in the peripheral areas of the lungs. Under these conditions, traditional ventilation of the lungs provides a back-and-forth movement of air only in the trachea, large and small bronchi, since only these areas of the respiratory tract remain unclogged by mucus and pus. But these areas of the respiratory tract do not provide effective oxygenation of the patient's blood. Therefore, conventional artificial lung ventilation (ventilator) cannot normalize the biomechanics of respiration until the elimination of respiratory obstruction. Therefore, in the case of respiratory biomechanics depression caused by respiratory obstruction, it is currently customary to oxygenate blood by extrapulmonary route - using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). However, ECMO is a very dangerous and poorly available method of treatment. Therefore, to save the lives of patients with severe hypoxia, it is proposed to urgently restore pulmonary blood oxygenation by oxygenating the lungs by injecting a solution of pus solvent into the peripheral areas of the lungs. At the same time, intra-pulmonary injection of an alkaline peroxide solvent of pus provides an immediate appearance of oxygen gas in the peripheral respiratory tract, since pus and blood veins contain the enzyme catalase, which immediately decomposes hydrogen peroxide into oxygen gas and water. In this case, mucus, pus and sputum with streaks of blood immediately turn into oxygen foam, which is easily removed through the upper respiratory tract to the outside.
Российский журнал биомеханики. 2021;25(4):406-413
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FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE STRESS STATE OF THE HIP JOINT ENDOPROTHESIS WHILE WALKING
Maslov L.B., Dmitryuk A.Y., Zhmaylo M.A., Kovalenko A.N.

Abstract

The study of the stress-strain state of the biomechanical system "pelvis - customized implant" by the finite element method is widely used in the treatment of pelvic injuries in orthopedics. However, the effect of the complex loading conditions that a person encounters on a daily basis on the behavior of the hip joint is not well understood. This work is devoted to the study of the stress-strain state of the biomechanical system formed by an endoprosthesis of the hip joint and the bones of the pelvic region of a person while walking. As part of solving the problem, the features of the creation of finite element models of the pelvic bones and an individual endoprosthesis were considered on the basis of the initial geometric models obtained from National Medical Research Center of Traumatology and Orthopedics named after R.R. Vreden (St. Petersburg) and performed a series of strength calculations for the walking pattern. The implant model replaced the primary installed prosthesis, which was lost due to the development of instability of the acetabular component. Analysis showed that the screws and the endoprosthesis have a sufficient margin of safety, while in the bone tissue one can expect local micro-destruction in the zone of its contacts with the screws. During the operation, it is worth focusing on the bonding of the implant to the bone tissue in order to avoid unwanted destruction of the cortical layer around the holes. Based on the analysis results, a recommendation can be made to exclude screws numbered eight and nine, since neither the screws nor the holes for them are subjected to heavy loads.
Российский журнал биомеханики. 2021;25(4):414-433
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PECULIARITIES OF THE BIOMECHANICAL AND INNERVATIVE STRUCTURE OF WALKING OF HEALTHY CHILDREN OF THE EARLY AGE
Batysheva T.T., Pismennaya E.V., Petrushanskaya K.A., Pisareva M.V., Kovina M.V.

Abstract

Restoration of the locomotor function is one of the most essential problems of medicine. This problem becomes especially essential, when we deal with those children, who can’t walk from their birth. Term “abilitation” is used just in relation to such children, what means not retraining children the right stereotype of walking, but appearance of this skill and its further adequate development. Nowadays, more and more specialists, who occupy themselves with abilitation of children of the early age, realize necessity of the instrumental estimation of the locomotor function. This phenomenon is connected with the fact, that in contrast with the score system of estimation, instrumental estimation of walking is maximally concrete and exact, and complex investigation of the biomechanical and innervative structure of walking gives complete idea of the locomotor disturbances of the child. Authors of this article investigated biomechanical and innervative structure of walking of 4 healthy children at the age of 2-2.5 years. On the basis of these investigations, it has been revealed, that the following peculiarities of walking are characteristic of children at the age of 2: remarkable diminution of the mean walking velocity, increase of cadence and shortening of the step length, essential transformation of the temporal structure of walking (growth of duration of the stance and double-support phase and decrease of duration of the swing phase), flexion position of the lower extremities, displacement of all extreme values of the angular displacements to the right along the temporal axis, considerable prolongation of the maximums of activity, absence of the second maximum of activity in a number of muscles, severe disturbances in the resonance properties of the lower extremities. All these peculiarities point out to the immaturity of the process of locomotion in children at the age of 2. The received data are necessary first of all as the standard ones, because walking parameters of children with the locomotor disorders of the early age must be compared with the corresponding parameters of the healthy children of the same age.
Российский журнал биомеханики. 2021;25(4):434-443
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EFFECT OF LOCAL MUSCLE FATIGUE ON BIOMECHANICAL AND VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF SKELETAL MUSCLES
Shitova E.S., Geregey A.M., Suvorov V.G., Sotin A.V., Moiseev Y.B., Kruchynsky N.H.

Abstract

The work is devoted to the study of the effect of local muscle fatigue on the biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscles. A device for non-invasive digital palpation MyotonPRO was used to carry out myotonometric measurements. The study involved 13 males and females (6 males and 7 females) aged 32.5 ± 10.6 years. Each volunteer completed two series of exercises that induce local muscle fatigue of the hand muscles. The exercises were performed with a hand grip with a resistance of 20 kg. The first series of exercises was performed until the volunteer developed a subjective fatigue, the second - until his/her refusal to continue due to excessive fatigue of the hand muscles. Testing had 3 stages: before starting strength exercises, after exertion, before subjective fatigue, and after loading with maximal exertion. Local muscle fatigue was objectively confirmed by dynamometry in accordance with the physiology standards. Myotonometry was performed on the cubital and radial flexors of the carpus, and on the abductor thumb muscle. As a result of the statistical analysis of data, it was shown that the myotonometry can be used to diagnose muscle fatigue. A change in active muscles myotometric indicators can be registered even when a subjective fatigue occurs, while local muscle fatigue does not affect the change in the tone of inactive muscles. It was also shown that the location of the measurement point of myotonometric characteristics on the muscle belly of the cubital flexor of the carpus does not affect the results with the condition that the place of application of the device is within the range of ±2 cm from the center of the muscle belly.
Российский журнал биомеханики. 2021;25(4):444-455
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