## No 27 (2018)

**Year:**2018**Articles:**12**URL:**https://ered.pstu.ru/index.php/elinf/issue/view/226**DOI:**https://doi.org/10.15593/.v0i27

Articles

MAGNETIC CONDUCTIVITY OF A MULTI-POLE REACTABLE ELECTRIC MACHINE WITH ANISOTROPIC MAGNETIC CONDUCTIVITY OF THE ROTOR

#### Abstract

The analysis of manufacturing technologies of a rotor of a reactive electric machine with anisotropic magnetic conductivity is carried out. It has been shown and proved that the best energy characteristics is possessed by a reactive machine with longitudinal blending of rotor-pole packets (ALA-Axially Laminated Anisotropic) as compared to a transversally laminated reactive machine (TLA-Transversally Laminated Anisotropic). A mathematical description is given of the magnetic conductivities of a multipole reactive electric machine with anisotropic magnetic conductivity of the rotor using longitudinal batch packing of the rotor pole packs (ALA). Based on the proposed circuit for replacing the magnetic circuit of a multipolar reactive electric machine with an anisotropic magnetic conductivity of a rotor with longitudinal packing of rotor pole packs (ALA), analytical dependences have been obtained, which make it possible to determine the transverse magnetic conductivity of the stator coil. To assess the effect of the mounting holes and the inter-pole air gap of the rotor structure of the reactive electric machine on the characteristics of the electric machine, new coefficients have been introduced: the coefficient of transverse magnetic conductivity; coefficient of variation of the transverse magnetic conductivity. The introduced coefficients allow estimating the energy and mass-dimensional parameters of the reactive machine depending on the geometric dimensions of the fixing recess, the magnitude of the inter-pole air gap, the number of pole pairs and the air gap size. The results of the analytical study are presented and graphs of dependences are given: the transverse magnetic permeability of the rotor pole from the electric angular coordinate; the attenuation coefficient from the number of pole pairs; the coefficient of variation of the transverse magnetic conductivity of a multipolar machine from the fraction of the fixing recess at the angular pole division and from the coefficient of magnetic resistance between the poles of the rotor. The introduced coefficient of transverse magnetic conductivity makes it possible to evaluate the energy and mass-dimensional characteristics of reactive electric machines and plays an important role in their design.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(27):7-29

GENERALIZED MULTIVARIATE INTERPOLATION THROUGH THE LEAST-SQUARE METHOD

#### Abstract

The article considers the least-square method as a technique of the generalized multivariate interpolation. The interpolation instrument is the generalization of the Lagrange interpolation with all its features. The interpolator allows us to use in the interpolation polynomial arbitrary functions or arbitrary combinations of arbitrary functions of arbitrary variables or their combinations from the original multidimensional set of them. The authors suggest the method of calculation of the least-square method approximating value by the algorithm similar to the calculation of the Lagrange interpolation instrument. This study develops the Kramer`s rule and suggests the method which allows to receive the product of reciprocal matrix and every matrix matched without inversion inclusive identity matrix. It is shown that the least squares approximation can be represented as a sum of determinants relations. The authors describe evident methods advantages which are not used in the practical work - possibility to get by one matrix expression several correlations through the least-square method and to modify the interpolated variable by the Lagrange interpolation instrument. An example of the application of least squares interpolation is presented for the case of finding two functional dependencies of parameters which are linear with respect to unknowns parameters and arbitrary known functions from two independent variables. Functional dependences of the proportion of normal pentane and isopentane in the isopentane fraction on process parameters (pressure and temperature) on the industrial isomerization unit of the pentane-hexane fraction are obtained. The obtained results can be applied to the task of controlling the temperature of the top of the deisopentanization column in order to maintain the optimum content of normal pentane in the isopentane to be separated, which will allow to optimize the consumption of thermal energy.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(27):30-48

APPROACH TO FORMATION OF STRUCTURE OF THE SELF-ORGANIZED INTELLECTUAL SYSTEM IN THE FORM OF DEKARTOVOZAMKNUTY CATEGORY (ON THE EXAMPLE OF DESIGN OF INFORMATION ANALYTICAL PROGRAM SYSTEM)

#### Abstract

In article information processing, the organization of functional interaction of program systems, taking into account dynamic properties of formal model of subject domain is considered. The method of transition to the quantitative multiple description of information processes and application of requirements of the ISO/IEC 15288 standard is shown. The theory of categories and the theory of sets as the formal device of the description of information objects for modeling of uniform storage of data of the considered subject domain with minimum and possible structural entropy is used. In work creation of information analytical program system as the systems of extraction of information from HD is offered (interpretation in aspect of the software). Postern the scheme of interrelations between different categories of the objects possessing own (internal entropy). Use of information analytical program system by users is described: persons the making decisions, analysts, experts, receiving the system of the analysis connected with processing, data transmission and knowledge. In work formal representation of subject domain on the basis of system model in the form of category of processes is offered. The rule of synthesis of the self-organized structure of models of process of a condition of minimization of structural minimization is offered. It is shown that the sequence of compositions decomposition of processes has property of fractal transformations (self-similar). Kernel of these transformations are the commutative triangles defining structure of the interacting processes at composition decomposition. The rule of synthesis of the self-organized structure of process of the agreement based on decomposition - composition of objects processes by logical addition of fractals in the form of commutative triangles in Descartes's squares and in the Cartesian polyhedron is offered further. It is shown that the relations between elements of data of structures remain rules of formal logic that allows to reduce structural entropy of processes to minimum and possible, that is to an algorithm. The possibility of creation of a number of identical formal algorithms of control of integrity of structure of initial processes is shown. The possibility of parametrical control of a condition of processes is shown.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(27):49-67

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF EIGHT-POLE FACTORS WITH TWO INPUT AND SIX OUTPUT OUTPUTS

#### Abstract

Eight-ports of different designs, namely eight-ports with two input and six output terminals, eight-ports with three input and five output outputs, eight-ports with four input and four output terminals, eight-poles with five input and three output terminals, eight-ports with six input terminals and two output terminals are needed to replace some energy objects. Especially when only the input and output characteristics of electrical energy are of interest. The singularities of the state of the eight-terminal network are described by the equations of various forms. To describe the state of an eight-terminal network with two input and six output terminals in power engineering, the A-form equations are most often used. And for the realization of these equations it is necessary to have information about the numerical values of the corresponding coefficients. The article presents one of the possible variants of the experimental determination of these coefficients. For the experimental determination of the numerical values of the coefficients of the A-form equations describing the state of the eight-terminal network with two input and six output terminals, it is required to perform ten experiments. The results of these experiments will make it possible to obtain the numerical values of the components of the ten variants of the A-form equations. A joint solution of these equations will allow us to determine the numerical values of the coefficients of the A-form equations estimating the state of the passive eight-terminal network with two input and six output pins. In principle, they can be used to evaluate the state of active eight-ports of a similar design. The numerical values of these coefficients will allow us to determine the numerical values of the coefficients of equations of other forms describing the state of the same eight-terminal network. Information on the numerical values of the coefficients of the eight-terminal network will make it possible to establish a quantitative relationship between the input and output characteristics of electrical energy.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(27):68-91

ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMAL CONTROL OF MOBILE HEAT SOURCE

#### Abstract

The present paper examines the matter of use of mathematical software for a system of optimal control of a moving heat source during the MCVD doping process. The mathematical software here is regarded as a part of software embedded into the control system of the MCVD machine. The subject of research is an automated process of fabrication of fiber preforms using the MCVD technology. The objective of the paper is to develop a control algorithm for the moving heat source. The suggested algorithm is based on the optimal control theory. The presence of a differential equation computer in the algorithm which simulates condition of the object of control allows for calculation of corrections for the control law and stabilization of a thermal field on the surface of the quartz tube in real time. This paper examines software modules which serve as a basis for implementation of the control algorithm. The central module of the designed control system is Matlab software. Main tasks of the algorithm - approximation of polynomial function data and solution of a system of equations - are implemented through a basic set of MatLab tools. In the task at hand, MatLab provides bidirectional communication with a SCADA system of the MCVD tool, receiving values of actual parameters of the MCVD process from on end, and sending the calculated correction value to adjust the control law to the other end. To ensure bidirectional communication between SCADA and MatLab, a communication protocol has been developed to exchange key process parameters, needed for the control algorithm. The control algorithm in question allows reduction of rejects by optimally controlling the thermal field during the MCVD fabrication process.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(27):92-103

ADVANCED TRAINING AND EDUCATION OF POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY STAFF IN FIELD OF E-LEARNING

#### Abstract

The additional professional programs of polytechnic university staff in the field of e-learning are presented for Applied Geology, Machine Engineering and Building Engineering. The program title is «The implementation of the main professional program using e-learning». The federal state educational standard in education and pedagogical science (44.06.01 - higher qualification specialist) and the professional standard (01.004 - the teacher of professional training, professional education and additional professional education) are the foundation of these programs. The additional professional program in the field of e-learning comprises two academic modules: the state policy in education field as the common module and the special modules for Applied Geology, Machine Engineering or Building Engineering. The common academic module includes the following main topics: the education system structure of the Russian Federation, the organization principles of educational activities, the rights and responsibilities of teachers and students, the state planning and regulation of educational activities, the management of the education system, economic fundamentals and financial support, the international cooperation in the educational field. The special academic module for Applied Geology includes the topics: basic statistics (mode, median, variance, standard deviation) for the estimates of the main characteristics of deposits within the territories with complex geological structure; statistical hypotheses and analysis of the geological structure; variance analysis to assess the homogeneity of the groups in petroleum-geological zoning; software Statistica. The special academic module for Machine Engineering includes the topics: the organizing principle of traffic control in the machine tool with numerical control, closed and open system of control, system feedback sensors, ISO 7-bit (basic concepts, frame, word, address, number, format of frame), organization sequential execution of the control program, modality, group modalities, description of G-codes and M-codes, the development of control programs. The special academic module for Building Engineering includes the topics: information modeling in the building engineering and technologies, the program package of building information modeling (BIM), organization of the project file, exploring the interface, assessment of functionality, functional features of BIM, using of simulation tools, working with objects, modeling of your own objects, getting information from digital building models (types, specifications, statements, catalogs, etc.), modeling of tall buildings, validation of the models, technology cloud and mobile access to BIM data, the documentation design, external links, templates and tools to further development of the model. The staff trainees of the additional professional program defend the final certification work. The individual assignments of the final certification work are the development of methodical guidelines for different disciplines, students’ methodical guidelines on research work, lecture courses and manuals, textbooks, manuals to laboratory work, manuals to self-study work or the preparation of scientific publication, e-learning materials, web resources and special interactive programs.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(27):104-127

MATH MODELING OF ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH DEPENDENCE ON AIR LINE WIRES FROM SPLIT PARAMETERS

#### Abstract

In this paper, based on the finite element method, a two-dimensional mathematical model of the electric field of wires of an air high-voltage transmission line was developed. On the basis of the proposed model, electric field distribution patterns were obtained, the electric field strength around the phase was studied during the laying of an overhead transmission line of 500 kV, and the dependence of the strength value on the phase splitting diameter and the number of wires for a fixed phase section was obtained. The two-dimensional problem of the electrostatic field, based on the differential Poisson equation, was solved. The study considered a single phase, split into three, four and five conductors. To evaluate the effect of the splitting diameter on the electric field strength, we considered a phase split into 5 wires. The cross-section and the number of wires in the phase were fixed, the distance between the conductors in the splitting varied. The calculation was carried out for distances between conductors equal to 460, 565 and 770 mm. The dependence of the electric field strength of the wires on their cross section and the amount in the splitting was for the total fixed cross sections of the phase. The cross-sectional areas of the phase were equal to 1000, 2000 and 3000 mm2. These cross sections were made up of standard wire sizes. A percentage evaluation of the influence of the considered splitting parameters on the indices of the electric field strength was made. Graphical dependences of the intensity on different splitting parameters are presented. Numerical analysis was performed using the finite element method in the software environment of Ansoft Maxwell.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(27):128-138

MAJORITY VOTE CIRCUIT WITH REDUDANCY

#### Abstract

The introduction of redundancy is one of the most effective methods of ensuring reliability, fault tolerance. Active reliability implies the presence of a voting device by the majority of votes. In the case of tripling, this device is called the majority element (Majority Voter). Failure (error) in one of the three channels is parried or masked (that is, "not noticed") by the system, and this requires three power supplies. For parrying failures in the most majority element, which calculates the logical function of voting for most units, three majority elements are used, giving information to the next three channels. If, however, this final device, for example, shaping the control effect on actuators having only one control loop, then one majority element must be used. Therefore, special demands are placed on the fault tolerance of the majority elements. It is assumed that its probability of failure-free operation is much higher than the probability of trouble-free operation of the channel of equipment. Sometimes even the probability of trouble-free operation of the majoritarian is equated to unity, which, of course, is an exaggeration. As a majority, a CMOS circuit containing 12 transistors is often used. In this case, 6 transistors realize the subcircuit of connection of the "+" power supply and 6 transistors realize the subcircuit of the bus connection "zero volts", since the complexity of the corresponding bracket form of the logic function is 5 and 2 of the transistor is an inverter. Reducing the complexity of the majority is possible only by using a circuit on the pass transistors. The article examines the majority scheme found in the literature on 6 pass transistors. Objective: The analysis and modeling of the majority element on 6 pass transistors, development and evaluation of the efficiency of the redundant circuit.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(27):139-152

THE DEVELOPMENT OF HEURISTIC COMPUTATIONAL DECISION-MAKING TOOLS WHEN SELECTING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ELEMENTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PIPELINES

#### Abstract

The shortcomings of integrated logistics support for petrochemical equipment and, in particular, technological pipelines are shown. It is noted that the reasons for these shortcomings are the low level of automation of intellectual support procedures in the processes of engineering and technical decision-making and processing of operational technical information. The results of the analysis of scientific research and achievements in the field of applied information technologies are presented. It is shown that to eliminate the existing shortcomings of integrated logistics support of technological pipelines it is necessary to use special heuristic-computing tools developed using a system approach; methods of artificial intelligence and logistics theory of resource saving in the field of production organization, as well as concepts of integrated information environment. The results of the analysis of normative and technical documentation, which identified the main structural characteristics of several pipeline elements-bends, transitions and tees. The systematization of the rules of selection and calculation of the characteristics of structural elements showed that the relationship between the desired characteristics of the elements and the input parameters of the process pipelines determining their values is discrete and in General can be described with the help of regulatory reference relations. It is noted that for each type of structural element of the pipeline there is an individual set and the composition of regulatory and reference relations. The results of the development of heuristic-computing tools that allow you to automate decision - making when choosing the structural characteristics of the above elements of process pipelines. In the development of heuristic-computational tools used production models of knowledge representation and heuristic-computational algorithms. An example of the development of heuristic-computing tools to automate the definition of missing in the passport-technical documentation of the structural characteristics of the elements of the pipeline, which is an actual practical problem.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(27):153-174

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES OF THE METHOD OF AUTOMATIC REGULATION OF PROCESSES BASED ON THE CONCEPT OF REVERSE DYNAMICS PROBLEMS

#### Abstract

The article presents a new approach to the synthesis of methods of automatic control of objects, based on the use of the concept of inverse dynamic problems and gives some results of experimental studies that illustrate the advantages of the proposed method over the PID method. The essence of PID-regulation of objects and the reasons, causing the necessity of searching for methods of automatic regulation, which are alternative to PID-regulation, are briefly considered. As an object of investigation, an additional 30 kVA alternating current generating system was chosen, which is used on modern Russian aircraft. The choice of this system, as an object of research, is due to the fact that at present the power capacity of aircraft is very high, since modern electronic systems of control, navigation and communications are widely used in modern aircraft, and the concept of a "fully electrified aircraft" is very actual. The method and algorithm for automatic control of objects based on the concept of inverse problems of dynamics and difference equations describing the relationships between the values of the controlled variable of the object and the control actions generated by the regulator was placed in the basis of the adaptive controller, which in turn was realized as an S-function and the corresponding block in the MatLab Simulink package. When used in the control system of the adaptive regulator of pulsation and distortion of the shape of the regulated signals (voltage and current) are practically absent, and, where they are, are within the permissible range. In case of any abnormal situations, at any time, the synthesized controller performs its functions in full and extremely correctly, maintaining the required values of current and voltage in the specified range. It is shown that the proposed method of synthesis of automatic regulators is sufficiently universal and allows to synthesize regulators for all control objects whose operation can be described both by ordinary differential equations and difference equations of various orders.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(27):175-194

SOFTWARE COMPLEX TO IMPLEMENT REINFORCEMENT LEARNING

#### Abstract

The article discusses developed software complex that allows implementing reinforcement learning algorithm, in order to teach the artificial neural network to perform its tasks. It is considered that reinforcement learning is a special case of training with the teacher, since the neural network teacher is the environment or the created working area, with which it interacts as an artificial neural network. The agent interacts with the environment and receives reward or punishment for each of his actions. Trying to earn the maximum number of points, in the form of a sum of all rewards, the neural network learns to interact with the environment, achieving the desired result. The article provides examples of how to use both neural networks and examples of configuring network weights based on reinforcement learning and the results achieved on their basis. These examples show both the neural networks relevance use for solving the tasks posed, and the prospects for using artificial neural networks various training methods. For the convenience and simplicity of the material presentation in the article, as an example, we considered the tic-tac-toe game, into which the neural network learned to play, and also the features of the neural network reward presented in the form of a list of rules, when interacting with the environment. As an algorithm for optimizing the weights of a neural network, the genetic algorithm was used, as the simplest and most convenient in implementation. The artificial neural network and the genetic algorithm were written from scratch in the Java programming language.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(27):195-208

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DESIGN FEATURES OF UNIVERSITY TEACHING PROCESSES

#### Abstract

The aim of this paper is to define the design features of information management system of university teaching processes. The development of the system is essential as it helps to reduce time the worker spends on a particular process as well as to improve the work of university as a whole (the system will improve the quality of main business- processes). The paper contains description of university teaching department as a business-processes owner, main business-processes connected with the department, problems of organization of these business-processes. Moreover, there are requirements and design features for developing information management system. There are several points that were emphasized as design features of system: the description of the main business-processes of university teaching department, the description of the main actors of the system (including pro-rector as an individual actor, who manages university teaching department and determines the requirements for the system and carry out business-processes according to university development strategy. In this paper there are also an architecture and software components for needed functions performance. The information management system has Web Server architecture with the use of cloud storages. The designed system also uses the independent components, which increases the possibility to include extra-modules for function expansion where appropriate. At the end there is a list of design features of information management system of university teaching processes, stated by authors.

**PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems**. 2018;(27):209-225