Vol 20, No 4 (2020)

Change in the Physico-Chemical Properties of Clays Subjected to Pressure
Seredin V.V., Siteva O.S., Alvanyan K.A., Andrianov A.V.


Clays are complex polymineral formations. The properties of clays, including sorption ones, are largely determined by the structure of their crystal lattice, mineral and granulometric composition, and environmental conditions. The mineral composition of clays is realized in the form of energy on the surface of the particles, and the granulometric composition in the form of the area of the active particles surface. These two complex indicators mainly determine the sorption clays activity. To change the sorption clays activity, mechanical treatment, thermal modification and chemical activation are carried out using chemical reagents, such as acids, alkalis, salts, with different duration of exposure. In this regard, a study of the regularities of changes in the structure and sorption properties of clays subjected to pressure was carried out. Experimental studies have shown that during the treatment of kaolin by pressure, defects are formed in the structural package of the kaolinite mineral due to the removal of Al3+, Fe3+/2+, Mg2+, Si4+ ions from it. In this case, the pressure has the maximum effect on the removal of Al3+ ions from the packet. The formation of defects during the removal of ions entails deformation of the crystal lattice of kaolinite. The obtained data on IR spectroscopy confirm an increase in the defectiveness (disorder) of the kaolinite structure. It was found that at kaolin treatment pressures of 0-150 MPa the greatest influence on the sorption activity of kaolin was exerted by the pH of the solution of the particles diffuse layer Z рН = 73 % and the degree of crystallite defectiveness Z Мc = 24 %. The specific surface area of particles Z Ssp = 1 % and the defectiveness of the kaolinite mineral package Z k = 2 % had no significant effect on sorption. At kaolin processing pressures of 150-800 MPa the greatest influence on the kaolin sorption activity was exerted by the defectiveness of the mineral kaolinite package Z k = 74 % and crystallite Z Mc = 19 %. The specific surface area of the particles Z Ssp = 3 % and the pH of the solution of the diffuse layer of the particles Z рН = 4 % had no significant effect on sorption.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2020;20(4):304-316
Forecasting the Oil and Gas Content of the Southern Part of the Perm Krai Using Regional Three-Dimensional Modeling
Yuzhakov A.L., Putilov I.S.


The territory of the southern part of the Perm Krai is characterized by a large oil and gas geological study, about 150 oil and gas fields have been discovered here, more than 7,000 deep wells have been drilled, 3D seismic works have been carried out on an area of more than 5,000 km2. The study of the territory allows you to get a huge array of geological information that can be used to search and predict the oil and gas content of previously missed or not previously explored structures. The study area was bounded from the south, west and east by the borders of the Perm Krai, and from the north -- by a conditional line along the border of the seismic survey carried out. To study the territory on the basis of the reflecting horizon surface of the Perm Krai, a three-dimensional geological model was built in the IRAP RMS software package. The model calculated the regional, zonal and local components of the reflecting horizon of the Perm Krai. The local component made it possible to identify structures that were divided into three categories: structures with an established oil and gas content, structures that did not contain oil and gas (empty), and structures for which it was necessary to perform a forecast. In the model, structural parameters were calculated, reflecting the potential of the trap for the accumulation and preservation of hydrocarbon deposits. The model was also loaded with geochemical parameters reflecting the generation potential and migration component, and hydrogeological parameters as indirect in determining the saturation of hydrocarbon structures. The obtained information about the value of each parameter for all structures made it possible to collect in a single database and forecast the oil and gas content of structures using the machine learning method - stepwise linear discriminant analysis. Based on the results of a stepwise linear discriminant analysis, 138 predicted structures were ranked according to their degree of perspective. Based on the constructed individual probabilistic models, a map of the regional probability of saturation of structures with hydrocarbons was obtained, which served as the basis for clarifying the boundaries of the oil and gas geological zoning of the southern part of the Perm Krai.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2020;20(4):317-330
Influence of Lithological-Facies Zones on the Efficiency of Cyclic Steam Treatments (on the Example of a Permo-Carboniferous Super-Viscous Oil Reservoir of the Usinsk Field of the Komi Republic)
Ageeva A.Y., Putilov I.S.


An assessment of the influence of lithological-facies zones on the development of the Permo-Carboniferous deposits of the Usinskoye field was carried out. To achieve this goal, the tasks of determining the filtration-capacity characteristics for each lithological-facies zone were solved, the influence of facies zoning on the degree of oil recovery for the Permo-Carboniferous reservoir of the Usinskoye field was analyzed, and the productivity was evaluated after the steam-cyclic treatments. The object of the study was the Permo-Carboniferous deposit of the Usinskoye field located in the Komi Republic. According to the developed format, a database was formed based on the results of petrophysical analysis of the core, as well as database on the effectiveness of cyclic steam treatments for a five-year period. In determining the facies, the classification of carbonate rocks according to Robert J. Dunham with the additions of Embry and Klovan (according to the predominance of structural components in limestone, the type of cementing substance, as well as their relationship in the rock). On the basis of the material composition of the rock and the structural parameter, three main facies zones were distinguished: carbonate shelf (zone of the inner ramp); organogenic structure (middle ramp zone); shallow shelf plain (middle ramp zone, partly outer ramp zone). In addition, a moderate-deep-sea shelf plain (outer ramp zone) can also be distinguished as facies. As a result of the studies, the graphs of the distribution of the displacement coefficient versus the porosity of the rocks were built, recommendations were given for determining the priority drilling areas by area. According to the core study in the eastern part of the deposit, a zone of organogenic structures is well distinguished, the formation of which occurred mainly in the Middle-Late Carboniferous and Early Permian time. In the northwestern part of the field, an internal ramp with carbonate bar facies was assumed. The placement of the priority drilling wells was selected taking into account that each production drilling cluster exposes the facies of organogenic structures with the best filtration-reservoir properties and oil displacement coefficient.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2020;20(4):331-343
Assessment of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Potential Application in the Oil and Gas Industry
Anikaeva A.D., Martyushev D.A.


The relevance of the work is due to the need to use unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to solve engineering and geodetic problems in the oil and gas industry. Aerial photography by unmanned aerial vehicles is currently an advanced technology in the field of geodesy, supplanting methods such as tacheometry, satellite positioning in RTK modes, manned aerial photography, and airborne laser scanning (ALS). The potential for using UAVs in the oil and gas industry today is truly enormous. Many safety and reliability issues, on which oil and gas companies have traditionally spent significant funds, can be effectively addressed using UAVs. Implemented: processing of data obtained from the unmanned complex in three modern software products (Agisoft Photoscan Professional, v (Russia), ERDAS IMAGINE, v 2015 (USA) and Pix4Dmapper Pro (Switzerland)) of various automation degrees; assessment of accuracy in ArcMap software by superimposing a topographic plan on an orthomosaic of a scale series of 1: 500 on the territory under consideration; calculation of economic and labor costs. As part of the study, it was proved that the use of UAVs was possible not only for geodetic work, but also for solving other equally important tasks of the oil and gas industry, which leads to a decrease in economic and environmental risks, automation of processes related to monitoring of oil facilities, prevention of illegal attempts pipeline tie-ins, oil spills. Also, on the basis of the obtained orthophotomaps, the economic, accuracy and labor-time feasibility of using unmanned systems was confirmed. It has been established that the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in various fields of oil and gas activities for solving engineering and geodetic problems is an integral part of any company engaged in the production and transportation of hydrocarbons.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2020;20(4):344-355
Assessment of the Uncertainty Parameters Influence on the Development Indicators Forecasting
Kozyrev N.D., Vishnyakov A.Y., Putilov I.S.


Uncertainties in the initial data when creating a geological and hydrodynamic model of a reservoir can lead to inaccuracies in the modeling results and, therefore, to an incorrect economic assessment and the perspective of an oil or gas field. In order to improve predictive reliability, an assessment of the influence of the hydrodynamic model initial parameters on the forecast of the main technological development indicators was carried out on the example of the Tournaisian object of the Soldatovskoye field. The study presents an approximate algorithm that allows to reduce uncertainties and increase the forecast reliability of the technological development indicators, obtained using a geological and hydrodynamic reservoir model. The algorithm includes a reasonable choice of initial parameters of uncertainty, assessment of the degree of initial parameters influence on the reservoir hydrodynamic model using sensitivity analysis, optimal range selection of uncertainty parameters variation as a result of multivariate adaptation of the hydrodynamic model, calculation and analysis of multivariate forecast for the reservoir hydrodynamic model. The result of the work is to clarify the design technological indicators of development, assess the risks of non-confirmation of the hydrodynamic model forecast, as well as recommendations and proposals for the study of those uncertainty parameters that had the greatest impact on the calculated technological indicators of the object development. As a result, a block diagram of the applied approach is presented in order to generalize and replicate on promising and significant oil and gas fields. The described approach to adapting the model and calculating forecast options in conditions of uncertainty of the model initial parameters would allow obtaining a more reliable and less subjective hydrodynamic model of the formation, which, in turn, would reduce the likelihood of an incorrect assessment of the prospects of a "young" field or a field developed at an early stage.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2020;20(4):356-368
Laboratory Studies of Carbonate Reservoirs in High-Viscosity Oil Fields using Carbon Dioxide
Kalinin S.A., Morozyuk O.A.


The actual development problem at the Permian-Carboniferous reservoir of the Usinskoye field is the involvement in the development process of low-permeability matrix blocks of the carbonate reservoir containing the main reserves of high-viscosity oil. In order to increase the efficiency of the currently used thermal methods for enhancing oil recovery, the authors consider the option of using carbon dioxide as an agent for stimulation the reservoir. Due to its high mobility in the supercritical state, CO2 is theoretically capable of penetrating into matrix blocks, dissolving in oil, and further reducing its viscosity. Thus, the use of CO2 together with a coolant can potentially increase the efficiency of high-viscosity oil production and increase the development rates of the Permian-Carboniferous reservoir of the Usinskoye field. When implementing technologies for carbon dioxide injection, including in combination with various agents, additional oil production is possible due to the various factors. Determination of influencing factors and identification of the most critical of them is possible by performing laboratory experiments. Therefore, the stage of laboratory research is key in substantiating the effectiveness of the technology. The study is devoted to the description of the laboratory-methodological complex, developed on the basis of a review of world experience and previously performed laboratory work. The complex allows conducting the necessary studies to assess the effectiveness of thermal, gas and combined methods of enhanced oil recovery. In particular, the authors consider experimental equipment and propose a methodology for performing complex studies of the technology of coolant and carbon dioxide combined injection in order to substantiate an effective method for superviscous oil production.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2020;20(4):369-385
Application of Integrated Modeling in the Oil and Gas Industry
Filippov E.V., Chumakov G.N., Ponomareva I.N., Martyushev D.A.


At the present stage of the oil industry development, characterized by an increase in the share of unconventional reserves, the number of complicated wells, the cost of oil production and, as a consequence, an increase in requirements for the accuracy of production accounting and the use of energy and resource-efficient technologies for development and production, in conditions of the need for a multifactorial assessment of development prospects assets, the task of intellectualization of the field comes to the fore, within the framework of which the issues of automation of processes and the introduction of integrated approaches to optimize production, prevention and control of complications, effective management of the development of assets both at the operational and long-term levels are being worked out. An integrated and effective tool for solving the assigned tasks today is an integrated model, which is understood as a model of the well products production (oil, gas, water), which includes all the elements of the production chain in the form of sequentially related component models. Integrated modeling is effectively used in the operational activities of LLC LUKOIL-PERM and is an optimal tool for solving multidisciplinary problems in the field of development and technologies for production, transportation and treatment of oil and gas (using Petroleum Experts software). The experience of using integrated models allows us to talk about a synergistic effect associated with the need to develop related areas and manifested in the growth of specialists' competencies, improving the quality and increasing the volume of initial data, improving the quality of individual components during their integration. A set of measures developed and substantiated using integrated models and their individual components made it possible to obtain additional oil production of more than 21.9 thousand tons.

Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering. 2020;20(4):386-400

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