## No 2 (2022)

**Year:**2022**Articles:**12**URL:**https://ered.pstu.ru/index.php/mechanics/issue/view/299**DOI:**https://doi.org/10.15593/perm.mech/2022.2

Plane-Strain Extrusion of a Green Type Porous Plastic Material through a Wedge-Shaped Die

#### Abstract

This paper presents the solutions for the plane-strain extrusion of porous material. We consider the problem of a stationary plastic flow through a wedge shaped die. We neglect friction between the die and the deformed material since it is rather a negative effect and should be avoided in manufacturing. The elliptic Green type yield condition and its piecewise-linear approximation are adopted for this problem. In the last case, we obtain analytical solution that links extrusion pressure and area reduction to the initial and final density of the porous material. For elliptic Green yield condition the problem reduced to nonlinear ODE that integrated numerically. The results are compared with known solution for Gurson model. The extrusion pressure predicted by the piecewise-linear model is lower than what obtained by the elliptic Green model. In turn, the pressure predicted by elliptic Green model is lower than the pressure obtained in the frame of Gurson model. At low values of area reduction, all three models predict approximately the same extrusion pressure. With a small initial porosity of the material, the Gurson model gives results that are close to the elliptic Green model, and with a large initial porosity, to the piecewise-linear Green model.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2022;(2):5-9

Contour integrals in nonlinear fracture mechanics for mixed forms of deformation

#### Abstract

Modern knowledge in the field of fracture mechanics is the first key knowledge in solving the problems of safety and strength of the objects with crack-like damages of the various origins. Nonlinear fracture mechanics in the analysis of the stress-strain state in the crack tip region is based on the one- and two-parameter approaches. The classical one-parameter studies involve the study of singular quantities, including a contour J -integral, independent of the path of integration, a stress intensity factor (SIF), etc. The values of the SIF and J -integral are interdependent. Combined methods are very popular, based on the union of numerical, experimental and analytical calculations, which make it possible to obtain the most clear description of the parameters of fracture mechanics. Calculation of the J -integral in finite element models, by the method of reactions or stresses, is very effective, but this requires sufficiently accurate analytical representations of the contour J -integral. There are certain limiting conditions when obtaining such formulas. In the numerous scientific works, it has been proved that J is an integral in the most cases does not depend on the path of integration, but is highly dependent on the methods of describing the parameters of the stress-strain state, as well as their derivatives, on the dimension of the problem and on the degree of distance of the contour of integration from the crack tip. In this paper, we review and present the author's conclusions of the contour integrals in nonlinear fracture mechanics for three cases: the classical Hutchinson - Rosengren - Rice solution (HRR), contour integrals in the gradient theory of plasticity, and the calculation of the J -integral for a general case when the components of stresses and displacements are the functions of three Cartesian coordinates. A generalized J- integral is derived and used to characterize a nonlinear amplitude fac.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2022;(2):10-24

Energy conditions for the formation of magnesium hydride

#### Abstract

In the present article we consider a novel approach to analyze the processes and kinetics of transformation of magnesium to hydride. Here approach consists to take into account the contributions of mechanics factors such as the work of external forces, the energy of elastic deformation and the energy required to form a unit volume nucleate of new phase. Request for a stable state of either a mechanical system or thermodynamic conditions governing a phase transformation, is to determine a minimum value to the total energy of the system. Analyzing the stability conditions needed when forming a metal hydride nucleus at constant temperature and pressure needs to consider the following: - the volumetric effects at the phase transformation, - the ratio of elastic moduli of metal to hydride phase, - the work spent at the formation of a unit volume of hydride. Under these considerations, it was shown that the most energetically favorable is forming an ellipsoidal hydride nucleus. Moreover, the larger difference in semi-axes, the more stable ellipsoid nucleus. Then, calculations of the stress-strain level states on both sides of the metal/hydride interface have been carried out. It was shown that the near-boundary range during the phase transformation is the place where accumulate inhomogeneous and intense stresses, which can contribute to two parallel processes. Firstly, increase of hydrogen concentration could appear in the distorted area. Secondly, a local accumulation of incoherent boundaries in between the two phases will develop stresses exceeding by more twice the shear yield stress. The presence of these compression zones could give rise new defects such as dislocations, micro-cracks. Consequently this should lead to decrease in magnitude of the powder of material.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2022;(2):25-38

Analysis of the limiting states of cylindrical elastic-plastic shells under tension and combined loading by internal pressure and tension

#### Abstract

The elastic-plastic deformation, limiting states and supercritical behavior of cylindrical shells under tension and combined loading by internal pressure and tension to failure are studied theoretically and experimentally. This problem is characterized by the occurrence of large strains, shape changes and, as a result, an inhomogeneous stress-strain state. In the numerical solution of such problems, the problem arises of constructing true stress-strain curves of materials. In this regard, to study the deformation and strength properties of materials, it is important to use an experimental-computational approach, which makes it possible to take into account the non-uniaxiality and inhomogeneous of the stress-strain state without accepting simplifying hypotheses. The paper presents a new efficient algorithm for constructing a true stress-strain curve, which is based on the procedure of nonlinear extrapolation of the curve. Such an algorithm, in the process of direct numerical solution of the problem, consistently constructs a stress-strain curve without using repeated direct calculations, which significantly (at times) increases its efficiency. Based on the experimental-computational approach, the true stress-strain curves for solid rods and shells made of 10KhSND and 10G2FBYu steels were determined under tension and combined loading by internal pressure and tension to failure. The failure of shells under tension occurs at lower (at times) values of true strain than solid rods. Significant differences in true stresses and strains at the moment of failure are due to different localization of deformation of solid rods and shells after the loss of stability of plastic deformation in tension. It is shown numerically and experimentally that after loss of stability of plastic deformation according to Considerer in tension, the cylindrical shell contains two forms of loss of stability until the moment of failure. The first form of loss of stability, as in solid rods, is characterized by localization of deformations along the diameter of the sample in the form of a neck, and the second form is characterized by localization of deformations along the thickness of the sample, which determines the final stage of failure. Under the action of internal pressure on the shell, the first form of loss of stability of plastic deformation degenerates with the formation of a neck inside the shell, and only the form of loss of stability is observed, caused by the localization of deformations along the thickness of the shell.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2022;(2):39-48

Solution of the plane problem of the theory of elasticity on bending of an articulated fixed multilayer panel with a circular axis

#### Abstract

This article suggests a method for the solution of the plane problem of the theory of elasticity on the bending of an articulated fixed multilayered panel with a circular axis based on the polynomial approximation of displacements through the thickness of the panel. In contrast to the known solutions of this problem, in this case the coefficients of the approximating polynomials are calculated from the equilibrium conditions and equality of displacements and transverse stresses at the transition across the layer interface and solution of differential equations of equilibrium at several points through the thickness of the layers. Finally, the problem is reduced to the solution of a system of linear equations with respect to the coefficients of approximating polynomials. The validity of the method is confirmed by comparing the results of calculations obtained on its basis and the results obtained with the help of the reference finite element model. The problem is solved in two stages. At the first stage, for a single-layer panel, we investigate the dependence of the polynomial degree on the ratio of the average panel radius to its thickness and the ratio of the transverse shear modulus to the modulus of longitudinal elasticity, which characterize the nonlinearity of displacements. At the second stage, on the example of a three-layered panel, we consider the application of the proposed method for the calculation of multilayered panels. In such case, the results obtained at the first stage are used in selecting the initial degree of polynomials approximating displacements through the thickness of layers. The method proposed in this article makes it possible to obtain an analytical solution without introducing simplifying hypotheses about the nature of displacement of layers and their elastic characteristics in a wide range of variation in geometric dimensions and elastic characteristics of panel layers. This method can be used both for verification of numerical models and for carrying out strength calculations of multilayer panels.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2022;(2):49-57

Modeling of the elastoplastic deformation process of single crystal superalloys

#### Abstract

The aim of the research is the development and verification of a micromechanically motivated model of elastoplastic deformation of two-phase single-crystal nickel-based alloys, predicting behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical actionswith taking into account the presence of γ and γ' phases. The model is relevant for computations of the stress-strain state of cooled single crystal blades of gas turbine units. The constitutive equations for each of the phases took into account the anisotropy of elastic and plastic properties, the presence of octahedral slip systems, features of the cubic system, and various hardening mechanisms, including kinematic, isotropic and latent ones. The identification of the elastic and plastic constants of the material for the γ and γ 'phases was carried out on the basis of the known stress-strain curves for each phase. The determination of the effective properties and deformation diagrams of a two-phase single-crystal alloy, taking into account the presence of γ-γ'phases, was carried out both on the basis of finite element homogenization for the representative volume element, and using the simplest rheological (structural) models of the material, considering serial and parallel connection of phases. The dependences of the elastoplastic properties of two-phase single-crystal nickel-based alloys on the volume fraction of the γ'phase are determined by computational experiments and analytical estimates. In order to determine the optimal strategy for solving the class of problems under consideration, multivariant computational experiments were carried out for various types of boundary conditions of the homogenization problem, the number of periodicity cells, forms of inclusion of the γ'phase, volume fractions of the γ' phase, types of hardening, variants of rheological models and appropriate recommendations were given. The simulation results using the proposed two-level microstructural model of the material demonstrate a good agreement with the experimental data for the single-crystal superalloy CMSX-4.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2022;(2):58-72

Modelling the effect of vibrations on the surface tension of a liquid droplet using meshless methods

#### Abstract

Application of vibration impacts for purposeful influence on such processes as drop formation, melt bath formation and crystallization of welding bead allows to control heat and mass transfer in liquid, crystallization process and shape of bead in technological processes of welding. Impact of vibration influences on nature of motion of liquid in the drop, which is reflected in the change of value of surface tension coefficient, is considered in the article. The mathematical model of the liquid flow considering surface tension force in formalism of smoothed particles hydrodynamics method is offered. This method allows direct consideration of the vibration effect by introducing additional boundary conditions. Verification of developed mathematical model is conducted in comparison with in-situ experiments, in which dependence of surface tension coefficient value on amplitude of speed of vibration influences was determined. To determine surface tension coefficient two methods were implemented: pending drop method and stalagmometric method. The implemented model satisfactorily describes the effect of decreasing surface tension coefficient for water. A series of numerical experiments for determining the effect of vibration influences on the value of surface tension coefficient for 12X18H10T steel grade was carried out. It was found that at vibration with speed amplitude equal to 2.0 m/s the decrease of surface tension coefficient value by 30 % is observed. Decrease in surface tension coefficient should facilitate the realization of continuous flowing of metal from the wire, which may positively influence the formation of metal during wire surfacing. Thus, the proposed mathematical model can clearly simulate the effect of vibration effects on the value of the surface tension coefficient and will allow the effect of vibration effects in additive manufacturing to be investigated in the future.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2022;(2):73-84

Solution of a mixed nonaxisymmetric problem of the theory of elasticity for anisotropic bodies of revolution

#### Abstract

The paper developed a technique for solving mixed nonaxisymmetric problems of the theory of elasticity for bounded bodies of revolution made of a transversely isotropic material under the action of surface forces specified according to a cyclic law. The technique involves the development of the energy method of boundary states, which is based on the concepts of spaces of internal and boundary states, conjugated by isomorphism, which makes it possible to establish a one-to-one correspondence between the elements of these spaces. The internal state includes the components of the tensor of stresses, deformations, and the displacement vector. The boundary state includes efforts and displacements at the boundary of the body. The isomorphism of the state spaces is proved, which allows finding the internal state to be reduced to the study of the boundary state isomorphic to it. The basis is formed on the basis of the general solution of the boundary value problem of elastostatics for a transversely isotropic body of revolution. Orthogonalization of state spaces is carried out, where the internal energy of elastic deformation is used as scalar products in the space of internal states; in the space of boundary states, the work of external forces is used. Finally, finding the desired state is reduced to solving an infinite system of algebraic equations for the Fourier coefficients. The solution of the problem with mixed boundary conditions for a circular in plan cylinder of transversely isotropic coarse dark gray siltstone with anisotropy axis coinciding with the geometric axis of symmetry is presented. The solution is analytical and the characteristics of the stress-strain state have a polynomial form. Explicit and indirect signs of convergence of problem solutions and graphical visualization of the results are presented.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2022;(2):85-97

About preliminary statistical processing of information on the study of fatigue strength of machine parts

#### Abstract

A generalized approach to statistical processing of the results is proposed fatigue parameters of static strength using methods of mathematical statistics and conventional statistics using the following probabilistic parameters: the mean square deviation, the initial moment, the central moment of dispersion and the coefficient of variation of the distribution series of physical and mechanical characteristics of the part material. Further, the analysis of fatigue strength research at the initial stage is carried out according to statistical information processing, graphical design of a number of stress distributions, statistical stress analysis, a graphical approach is applied in the form of a histogram of a number of distributions, a polygon of frequencies, a polygon of accumulated frequencies, the selection of theoretical stress distribution laws with their empirical confirmation is compared with a more rigorous assessment of the conformity of the distribution laws, which is performed using special consent criteria, for example, the Pearson criterion, a parallel verification of the correctness of the chosen approach using classical dependences of the resistance of materials is proposed. the total error is estimated in the form of a methodological error and a direct discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental values of stresses and temperatures of the physico-mechanical process according to experimental and theoretical normal and tangential stresses arising during the operation of the part as a result of the application of external force factors, a temperature-time superposition is used, in the form of a function of the predicted durability of the fluctuating kinetic theory of strength, in which the temperature, as a linear function, it can be replaced by any energy or force criterion, in particular: specific energy, relative deformation, normal or tangential stresses. The proposed approach requires substantial experimental study on a basic batch of the same type of samples and coordination according to schematized diagrams of the limiting amplitudes of Goodman, Sorensen - Kinasoshvili, Kogaev, subject to the conditions of safe operation of parts in the field of low-cycle fatigue. The proposed probabilistic model of statistical processing of fatigue strength can be recommended for solving applied problems of the theories of mechanics of materials, elasticity, plasticity and creep, resistance of materials, structural mechanics

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2022;(2):98-104

Contact problems for a transversely isotropic layer

#### Abstract

Two spatial, one axisymmetric and two plane contact problems are considered for a transversely isotropic elastic layer with one face subjected to sliding support. In the spatial and plane contact problems, the planes of isotropy may be either parallel or perpendicular to the layer faces. In the case of axial symmetry, the planes of isotropy are parallel to the layer faces. By using Fourier integral transforms, the contact problems are reduced to integral equations with respect to the contact pressure, the limiting cases of which are the well-known equations of the corresponding problems for an isotropic layer. For solving the spatial problems with unknown contact domains, the nonlinear boundary integral equations method is used, which make it possible to determine the contact pressure and the contact domain simultaneously. To extract the kernel principal part of the spatial problem integral equation when the isotropy planes are perpendicular to the layer faces, it is used the kernel of the integral equation of the corresponding contact problem for a transversely isotropic half-space obtained earlier without quadratures. The integral equation of the axially symmetric problem is reduced to a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind with the help of the method of pair equations, and the method of mechanical quadratures is used for numerical solutions. Plane problems are solved in a closed form based on special approximations of the kernel symbols. The approximations accuracy grows as anisotropy increases. Here, the anisotropy level can be characterized by the difference between ratio of a characteristic equation roots and unit because the unit value corresponds to the isotropic case. Mechanical characteristics as well as errors of the approximations are calculated for well-known transversely isotropic materials.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2022;(2):105-113

Evolution of the grain structure of metals and alloys under intense plastic deformation: multilevel models

#### Abstract

It is well known that the performance properties of products made of metals and alloys are determined mainly by the meso- and microstructure of the latter. The structure of materials is formed and undergoes significant changes in the processes of manufacturing parts and structures using thermomechanical processing methods. A very important parameter that determines the physical and mechanical characteristics of materials is the grain structure (size, shape, relative positions of grains and inclusions of various phases). In recent decades, in this regard, special attention has been paid to the processes of severe plastic deformation (SPD), which make it possible to obtain a submicro- and nanocrystalline grain structure, which provides a significant increase in the performance properties of products made of metals and alloys. The development of SPD technologies in modern conditions is unthinkable without mathematical modeling of the processes under consideration; the most important component in the development of such a "toolkit" are constitutive relations (or, more broadly, constitutive models). In connection with the foregoing, the latter should be able to describe the evolutionary structure at various scale levels. Until now, the practice of developers of materials processing technologies has been dominated by the use of macrophenomenological models based on classical continuum theories of plasticity, viscoplasticity, and creep. From the second half of the 20th century to the present, various improvements to the constitutive models of the above class have been proposed, in which additional parameters and kinetic equations are introduced for them, describing certain characteristics of the structure of materials. As a rule, such models make it possible to obtain an adequate picture of the changing structure, however, for specific materials and methods of thermomechanical treatment. At the same time, such models, unfortunately, do not have the necessary universality; when changing the material or processing method, they have to be significantly “customized” to specific conditions, up to a complete change in the relationships included in the model. A brief review of works devoted to the creation and application of models of this class is given in the previous article by the authors. The most promising and possessing a significant degree of universality, according to the authors, are currently multilevel constitutive models based on the introduction of internal variables and physical theories of plasticity (elastoviscoplasticity). A review of works that consider various aspects of the formulation, modification, numerical implementation and application of such models is proposed in this article. The main attention is paid to models focused on the description of changes in the structure of materials due to dislocation-disclination mechanisms; a brief note is given on models that take into account thermally activated diffusion mechanisms, due to which the processes of recovery and recrystallization are realized.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2022;(2):114-146

Implementation of the Lemaitre damage model with kinematic hardening in the ANSYS finite element complex

#### Abstract

Currently, one of the most popular in fracture mechanics is taking into account damage and its effect on the stress-strain state of structural elements. In this work, the Lemaitre damage model was integrated taking, into account the combined hardening law, which combines the Armstrong - Frederick kinematic hardening law and the Voce isotropic hardening law, into the ANSYS finite element software. The model is implemented in the form of a dynamically linked library of user material for three-dimensional objects, which is tested on a cylindrical specimen with an external annular notch, both in an axisymmetric setting and in a three-dimensional one. The article presents model representations of the above-listed standard systems. This work demonstrates only one of the two stages of verification of the created program - comparison of damage fields under monotonic loading with data known in the literature - and doesn’t take into account the verification of cycle-by-cycle kinetics of plastic deformation accumulation with experimental data for low-cycle fatigue. The result of verification, consistent with similar experiments known in the literature, is confirmed in accordance with similar experiments. In addition, an analogy was found using the TSL law of the cohesive fracture mechanics approach. Despite the fact that two different types of constitutive equations are used in the cohesive model and Lemaitre, the physical meaning of these equations consists in one thing - visualization and identification of mechanisms and coordinates of damage.

**PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin**. 2022;(2):147-157